General Biology

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39. Digestive System

Blood Sugar Homeostasis


Blood Sugar Homeostasis

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Hi. In this video, we'll be talking about blood sugar. Homeostasis. Like other properties of the body, blood glucose levels need to be carefully monitored and regulated and things Congar Oh, really wrong when this homeostasis system is disrupted, as is the case with the disease diabetes mellitus that actually effects nearly 10% of the American population. This disease disrupt blood sugar home, you know, Stasis. And it's due to problems with the hormone insulin. Blood sugar Homeostasis is going to be in large part of balancing act of the two hormones. Insulin glue gone. We'll get to what they do in just a second. First, I want to talk about Thebes. Apps of diabetes Type one and Type two Type one is when the pancreas, the gland that produces and secretes insulin, fails to produce sufficient quantities. Oftentimes, this is due to an autoimmune reaction that actually destroys the cells of the pancreas responsible for producing insulin. Now, Type two is thought of as insulin insist in the insulin insensitivity that is a tongue twister. So, basically, with Type two, the cells of the body failed to properly respond to the hormone signal from insulin. So what do insulin and glucose gun do well. Both of these hormones air coming from the pancreas, which is this lovely Oregon here, and the pancreas has many roles in digestion, and again, it also plays a crucial role in blood sugar. Home. You know, Stasis. Now, when you have high blood sugar, your pancreas gets a signal and it releases insulin. Insulin is going to travel to the tissues of the body and liver, and it's going to cause your muscles and your liver to take up this excess glucose that's in your blood. So glucose is stored in animals as this highly branched structure called like a gin. So this is sometimes referred to as glycogen icis, the creation of glycogen, and it's going to again happen in response to insulin and occur specifically in the muscles and the liver. Now, when you have low blood sugar, pancreas gets a signal, and this time it's going to respond by releasing the hormone glue Coogan Glue Grogan is going thio Target the liver and tell the liver to break down its glycogen, turn it into glucose. Get my head out of the way. So we're gonna have a breakdown of glycogen into glucose, and this is going to increase your blood sugar levels So insulin causes the tissues to absorb glucose and turn it into glycogen glue. Gun causes the liver to break down glycogen and turn it into glucose and therefore increase the blood sugar levels. So it's It's a nice balancing act between these two hormones. Now. I should also mention that the liver will also in response to glue, Coogan perform something called glue konia Genesis. This is the, uh, construction of glucose, basically from non carbohydrate carbon sources. So this is when your body is going to take, like, carbon from protein. I'm, well, proteins, amino acids. Really? For example, take those carbons and use those to build glucose. This is a very energy intensive process, which is why it, you know, is going to be tightly regulated with hormonal control in the form of glue. Kagen, because you know you don't want to just be wasting lots of energy producing glucose. If, for example, you have a ton of it in your blood ready to go. Now, if you're wondering why the liver is the only thing that's gonna break down glycogen response to glue kyogen That's because the liver is going to act as a long term store for glycogen. Muscles are very greedy. They need lots of energy. And so even though insulin will cause them to store their glycogen, they're going to use that up pretty quickly. So when you have diabetes, this whole system goes awry. You can't either produced or respond to the insulin properly, so your blood sugar levels can get out of whack. And this can actually be really dangerous. And if your blood sugar levels get too high, lead to things like like oscillation, which is, uh, you know, when the tissues in your body have sugars basically like chemically attached to them, it's can lead to some pretty bad long term health consequences. Conversely, low blood sugar can be, uh, much more dangerous in the short term. It can actually lead to death if it gets too low. So maintaining blood sugar levels is essential for life. And you know, this really has this really nice balancing act between insulin and glucose gone. You know, it's not like a static system where your body just gets it right and leaves it there. You know your body is constantly using sugars. And so it constantly needs to be finding that right balance, uh, of blood sugar. And so it's going to be constantly using insulin and glucose gone to sort of nudge the scales on either side to fine tune the balance to get it to that nice, homey, a static set point. That's all I have for this video. I'll see you guys next time.