# Intermediate Algebra, 8th edition

Published by Pearson (January 3, 2016) © 2017

**John Tobey**North Shore Community College**Jeffrey Slater**North Shore Community College**Jamie Blair**Orange Coast College**Jennifer Crawford**Normandale Community College

## eTextbook

- Easy-to-use search and navigation
- Add notes and highlights
- Flashcards help streamline study sessions

## MyLab

- Reach every student with personalized support
- Customize courses with ease
- Optimize learning with dynamic study tools

*For courses in intermediate algebra.*

**With You Every Step of the Way**

The **Tobey/Slater/Blair/Crawford series** retains the hallmark characteristics that have always made the text so easy to learn and teach from, including a “building block” organization. Each program builds essential skills and conceptual understanding by breaking the mathematics down into manageable pieces.

The new editions address the latest trends and dynamics related to developmental mathematics course structures, including helping students gain a stronger conceptual understanding, while contextualizing the math. Instructors will find the inclusion of new conceptually oriented Guided Learning Videos with the accompanying *Video Workbook with the Math Coach* (in MyMathLab)*, *plus a new emphasis on Career Explorations throughout the text and MyMathLab course to help students explore potential career paths. The Tobey series is flexible, and well-suited for a variety of classroom formats, including lecture-based, computer-lab based (modular and/or self-paced), hybrid, and online.

**Also available with MyMathLab**

MyMathLab^{®} is an online homework, tutorial, and assessment program designed to work with this text to engage students and improve results. Within its structured environment, students practice what they learn, test their understanding, and pursue a personalized study plan that helps them absorb course material and understand difficult concepts. For this edition, the MyMathLab course includes new Guided Learning Videos and an updated and expanded *Video Workbook with the Math Coach*.

**About the Book**

Students will find many opportunities to check and reinforce their understanding of concepts throughout each chapter:

**NEW! Career Explorations**have been integrated throughout the text and MyMathLab course, enabling students to personally investigate future career options while helping to answer the common question, “When will I ever use this math in the future?”- Each chapter starts with a
**Career Opportunities**feature that puts the math into context and ends with multiple**Career Exploration Problems**that are also assignable in MyMathLab. **Student Practice problems**are paired with every example in the text. The full solutions to each practice problem are located in the back of the text, allowing students to check their work as they go.**End-of-Section Exercises**progress from basic to challenging, and each exercise set includes Verbal and Writing Skills, and Mixed Practice exercises.**UPDATED!**Many of the exercises throughout the text have been refreshed, and all of the real-world application problems have been updated.- A
**Quick Quiz**at the end of each exercise set contains three problems that cover the essential content of that section. This simple assessment tool measures whether students are ready for new material, or need further review. - A
**Concept Check**question at the end of each Quick Quiz asks students to explain in their own words how and why a method works, forcing them to analyze problems and reflect on the mathematical concepts. All of these are assignable in MyMathLab, and the Concept Check question utilizes the Guided Exercise type. **Classroom Quizzes**in the Annotated Instructor's Edition parallel every Quick Quiz, which allows instructors to quickly assess the understanding of the class at any point in the chapter.- The
**End-of-Chapter Material**provides several opportunities for review and reinforcement of key concepts:

**Chapter Organizers**summarize the chapter topics, procedures, and corresponding examples all in one place to simplify chapter review. A ”You Try It” column provides another opportunity for practice.**Assessment Check****boxes**on the “**How Am I Doing?”****Chapter Test**encourage students to check their work. If students need extra help on any test problems, they can watch the**Chapter Test Prep Videos**, where all test solutions are worked out on video.

**The Math Coach**follows every chapter test and provides helpful hints and coaching on the most difficult concepts and exercise types in that particular chapter. Examples similar to the Math Coach problems have been noted throughout the chapter with side-by-side examples and practice problems that encourage students to try the practice problem on the spot. Students can have an office-hour experience with the authors when they watch the authors solve these key problem types on the**Math Coach Videos.**These exercises and videos are all assignable in MyMathLab, including bonus exercises that have been newly added to the MyMathLab course; they utilize the Guided Exercise type.

- The
**Use Math to Save Money**feature in the text gives practical, realistic examples in every chapter of how students can use math to cut costs and spend less. Topics were selected based on a survey of more than 1,000 developmental math students. There are accompanying Use Math to Save Money Animations and exercises available in MyMathLab.

**Also available with MyMathLab**

MyMathLab^{®} is an online homework, tutorial, and assessment program designed to work with this text to engage students and improve results. Within its structured environment, students practice what they learn, test their understanding, and pursue a personalized study plan that helps them absorb course material and understand difficult concepts.

**Expanded Video Program**with**NEW Guided Learning Videos**and an accompanying*Video Workbook with the Math Coach*:**NEW!**A series of**Guided Learning Videos**shows how to solve the most important types of problems contained in each chapter in a conceptual, stepped-out way.**Objective-level video clips**have also been added to the MyMathLab course for every objective, with accompanying icons throughout the text.**Updated and expanded!**Thehelps students stay organized, follow along, and practice with the Guided Learning and Math Coach videos. It also provides additional practice, vocabulary, and skill reinforcement.*Video Workbook with the Math Coach*- These video additions expand upon an already rich video lecture series that also includes Section Lecture Videos, Math Coach Videos, and Chapter Test Prep Videos.
**NEW! Career Explorations**have been integrated throughout the text and MyMathLab course in an interactive format that contextualizes the math to engage students and get them thinking about future career possibilities.**Career Exploration Problems**foster active learning and better understanding of the math concepts, and are assignable in MyMathLab.**NEW! Use Math to Save Money Animations**expand on a favorite feature from the text, allowing students to put the math they just learned into context. They are included in the MyMathLab course. Many also include assignable**Use Math to Save Money Exercises**in MyMathLab that instructors can assign to ensure students watched the animation and understood the concepts.**A variety of assignable exercise types**are included in the MyMathLab course, and many pre-built homework assignments, quizzes, and tests have been set up for instructor convenience. Instructors will find:- Pre-made
**section-level homework assignments**. **Updated!**“**How Am I Doing?**” mid-chapter reviews have been moved from the text to MyMathLab and let students pause at critical junctures to make sure they are "getting it." Pre-made**“How Am I Doing?” mid-chapter review homework**assignments make it easy for instructors to assign these mid-chapter reviews. Plus there is also a pre-made**end-of-chapter review homework.**- A pre-made
**pre- and post-test**for every chapter, and a pre-made**chapter review quiz**. **Expanded! Guided Questions**break problems into multiple steps and guide students through solutions, helping them understand not only the steps involved, but the reasoning behind them. This exercise type is used in the Quick Quizzes and Math Coach questions.**Assignable Quick Quiz**exercisesare available for every section. There are four Quick Quiz Exercises per section; the first three questions are skill-oriented, and the fourth question is a**Concept Check**that utilizes the**Guided Question**exercise typeto help ensure students understand the conceptual connections for the section.**Math Coach**exercises are available for every chapter, and pre-built**Math Coach Homework Assignments**make it easy for instructors to assign the entire Math Coach feature to help students with the most difficult concepts in the chapter.- These are based on
**Math Coach problems in the text**, which follow each Chapter Test, and provide students with a personal office-hour experience by walking them through some helpful hints to keep them from making common errors on test problems. **Math Coach Videos**offer additional help by showing the authors working out the problems.- The
**Math Coach exercises in MyMathLab**use the**Guided Question**exercise type, and feature the Math Coach Videos as learning aids. There are even more assignable Math Coach exercises with this edition! - Students can also use the accompanying
to follow along with the videos and for extra practice.*Video Workbook with the Math Coach* **Use Math to Save Money Exercises**are available to accompany many of the Use Math to Save Money animations in MyMathLab, to ensure students watch the animation and understood the concepts.**NEW! Learning Catalytics™ Integration:**MyMathLab now includes Learning Catalytics, an interactive, student response tool that uses students’ smartphones, tablets, or laptops to engage them in more sophisticated tasks and thinking. Now included with MyLab & Mastering with eText, Learning Catalytics enables you to generate classroom discussion, guide your lecture, and promote peer-to-peer learning with real-time analytics. Pearson-created content for developmental math allows instructors to take advantage of this exciting technology immediately.**NEW! The Student Success Module**includes videos, activities, and post-tests for these three student success areas:**Math-Reading Connections**, including topics such as Using Word Clues and Looking for Patterns.**Study Skills**, including topics such as Time Management and Preparing for and Taking Exams.**College Success**, including topics such as College Transition and Online Learning.- Instructors can assign these videos and/or activities as media assignments, along with pre-built post-tests to make sure students learn and understand how to improve their skills in these areas. Instructors can integrate these assignments with their traditional MyMathLab homework assignments to incorporate student success topics into their course as they deem appropriate.

**About the Book**

**NEW! Career Explorations**have been integrated throughout the text and MyMathLab course, enabling students to personally investigate future career options while helping to answer the common question, “When will I ever use this math in the future?”- Each chapter starts with a
**Career Opportunities**feature that puts the math into context and ends with multiple**Career Exploration Problems**that are also assignable in MyMathLab. **UPDATED!**Many of the exercises throughout the text have been refreshed, and all of the real-world application problems have been updated.

**Also available with MyMathLab**

MyMathLab^{®} is an online homework, tutorial, and assessment program designed to work with this text to engage students and improve results. Within its structured environment, students practice what they learn, test their understanding, and pursue a personalized study plan that helps them absorb course material and understand difficult concepts.

**Expanded Video Program**with**NEW Guided Learning Videos**and an accompanying*Video Workbook with the Math Coach*:**NEW!**A series of**Guided Learning Videos**shows how to solve the most important types of problems contained in each chapter in a conceptual, stepped-out way.**Objective-level video clips**have also been added to the MyMathLab course for every objective, with accompanying icons throughout the text.**Updated and expanded!**Thehelps students stay organized, follow along, and practice with the Guided Learning and Math Coach videos. It also provides additional practice, vocabulary, and skill reinforcement.*Video Workbook with the Math Coach*- These video additions expand upon an already rich video lecture series that also includes Section Lecture Videos, Math Coach Videos, and Chapter Test Prep Videos.
**NEW! Career Explorations**have been integrated throughout the text and MyMathLab course in an interactive format that contextualizes the math to engage students and get them thinking about future career possibilities.**Career Exploration Problems**foster active learning and better understanding of the math concepts, and are assignable in MyMathLab.**NEW! Use Math to Save Money Animations**expand on a favorite feature from the text, allowing students to put the math they just learned into context. They are included in the MyMathLab course. Many also include assignable**Use Math to Save Money Exercises**in MyMathLab that instructors can assign to ensure students watched the animation and understood the concepts.**Updated!**“**How Am I Doing?**” mid-chapter reviews have been moved from the text to MyMathLab and let students pause at critical junctures to make sure they are "getting it." Pre-made**“How Am I Doing?” mid-chapter review homework**assignments make it easy for instructors to assign these mid-chapter reviews. Plus there is also a pre-made**end-of-chapter review homework.****NEW! Learning Catalytics™ Integration:**MyMathLab now includes Learning Catalytics, an interactive, student response tool that uses students’ smartphones, tablets, or laptops to engage them in more sophisticated tasks and thinking. Now included with MyLab & Mastering with eText, Learning Catalytics enables you to generate classroom discussion, guide your lecture, and promote peer-to-peer learning with real-time analytics. Pearson-created content for developmental math allows instructors to take advantage of this exciting technology immediately.**NEW! The Student Success Module**includes videos, activities, and post-tests for these three student success areas:**Math-Reading Connections**, including topics such as Using Word Clues and Looking for Patterns.**Study Skills**, including topics such as Time Management and Preparing for and Taking Exams.**College Success**, including topics such as College Transition and Online Learning.- Instructors can assign these videos and/or activities as media assignments, along with pre-built post-tests to make sure students learn and understand how to improve their skills in these areas. Instructors can integrate these assignments with their traditional MyMathLab homework assignments to incorporate student success topics into their course as they deem appropriate.

## Table of Contents

**Whole Numbers**- 1.1 Understanding Whole Numbers
- 1.2 Adding Whole Numbers
- 1.3 Subtracting Whole Numbers
- 1.4 Multiplying Whole Numbers
- 1.5 Dividing Whole Numbers
- 1.6 Exponents and Order of Operations
- 1.7 Rounding and Estimating
- 1.8 Solving Applied Problems Involving Whole Numbers

- Career Explorations
- Chapter 1 Organizer
- Chapter 1 Review Problems
- Chapter 1 Test
- Math Coach

**Fractions**- 2.1 Understanding Fractions
- 2.2 Simplifying Fractions
- 2.3 Converting Between Improper Fractions and Mixed Numbers
- 2.4 Multiplying Fractions and Mixed Numbers
- 2.5 Dividing Fractions and Mixed Numbers
- 2.6 The Least Common Denominator and Creating Equaivalent Fractions
- 2.7 Adding and Subtracting Fractions
- 2.8 Adding and Subtracting Mixed Numbers and the Order of Operations
- 2.9 Solving Applied Problems Involving Fractions

- Career Explorations
- Chapter 2 Organizer
- Chapter 2 Review Problems
- Chapter 2 Test
- Math Coach

**Decimals**- 3.1 Using Decimal Notation
- 3.2 Comparing, Ordering, and Rounding Decimals
- 3.3 Adding and Subtracting Decimals
- 3.4 Multiplying Decimals
- 3.5 Dividing Decimals
- 3.6 Converting Fractions to Decimals and the Order of Operations
- 3.7 Estimating and Solving Applied Problems Involving Decimals

- Career Explorations
- Chapter 3 Organizer
- Chapter 3 Review Problems
- Chapter 3 Test
- Math Coach

**Ratio and Proportion**- 4.1 Ratios and Rates
- 4.2 The Concept of Proportions
- 4.3 Solving Proportions
- 4.4 Solving Applied Problems Involving Proportions

- Career Explorations
- Chapter 4 Organizer
- Chapter 4 Review Problems
- Chapter 4 Test
- Math Coach

**Percent**- 5.1 Understanding Percent
- 5.2 Changing Between Percents, Decimals, and Fractions
- 5.3A Solving Percent Problems Using Equations
- 5.3B Solving Percent Problems Using Proportions
- 5.4 Solving Applied Percent Problems
- 5.5 Solving Commission, Percent Increase or Decrease, and Interest Problems

- Career Explorations
- Chapter 5 Organizer
- Chapter 5 Review Problems
- Chapter 5 Test
- Math Coach

**Measurement**- 6.1 American Units
- 6.2 Metric Measurements: Length
- 6.3 Metric Measurements: Volume and Weight
- 6.4 Converting Units
- 6.5 Solving Applied Measurements Problems

- Career Explorations
- Chapter 6 Organizer
- Chapter 6 Review Problems
- Chapter 6 Test
- Math Coach

**Geometry**- 7.1 Angles
- 7.2 Rectangles and Squares
- 7.3 Parallelograms, Trapezoids, and Rhombuses
- 7.4 Triangles
- 7.5 Square Roots
- 7.6 The Pythagorean Theorem
- 7.7 Circles
- 7.8 Volume
- 7.9 Similar Geometric Features
- 7.10 Solving Applied Problems in Geometry

- Career Explorations
- Chapter 7 Organizer
- Chapter 7 Review Problems
- Chapter 7 Test
- Math Coach

**Statistics**- 8.1 Circle Graphs
- 8.2 Bar Graphs and Line Graphs
- 8.3 Histograms
- 8.4 Mean, Median, and Mode

- Career Explorations
- Chapter 8 Organizer
- Chapter 8 Review Problems
- Chapter 8 Test
- Math Coach

**Signed Numbers**- 9.1 Adding Signed Numbers
- 9.2 Subtracting Signed Numbers
- 9.3 Multiplying and Dividing Signed Numbers
- 9.4 Order of Operations with Signed Numbers
- 9.5 Scientific Notation

- Career Explorations
- Chapter 9 Organizer
- Chapter 9 Review Problems
- Chapter 9 Test
- Math Coach

**Introduction to Algebra**- 10.1 Variables and Like Terms
- 10.2 The Distributive Property
- 10.3 Solving Equations Using the Addition Property
- 10.4 Solving Equations Using the Division or Multiplication Property
- 10.5 Solving Equations Using Two Properties
- 10.6 Translating English to Algebra
- 10.7 Solving Applied Problems

- Career Explorations
- Chapter 10 Organizer
- Chapter 10 Review Problems
- Chapter 10 Test
- Math Coach

**John Tobey** received his BA in mathematics from Wheaton College in Wheaton, Illinois, in 1965, his MA in mathematics education from Harvard University in 1966, and his PhD in mathematics education from Boston University in 1980. He has taught in the mathematics department at the United States Military Academy at West Point and served as the Mathematics Department Chairman at North Shore Community College in Danvers, Massachusetts, for five years. John has served as the president of the New England Mathematics Association of Two Year Colleges. He has received the NISOD award for outstanding teaching from the University of Texas at Austin. John is the author of seven mathematics books published by Pearson Education. John has spoken to many mathematics departments and at many professional meetings throughout the country on the topic of developmental mathematics education and distance learning in mathematics. He lives in Massachusetts.

**Jeffrey Slater** has been a professor at North Shore Community College for thirty-eight years and received the Teacher of the Year award in 2002. Jeff travels around the country speaking on student retention and is also a consultant to the Federal Government. He lives in Lexington, Massachusetts, with his wife Shelley and his yellow lab Gracie.

**Jamie Blair** has directed the Mathematics Learning Center at Orange Coast College for the past seventeen years. She designed, developed, and implemented the center, and as a result of this effort, has provided technical expertise related to the particulars of the Math Center to numerous other two-year colleges and at many conferences. In 2007, Jamie was appointed to the Team of Basic Skills Specialists by the California State Academic Senate. She is also currently participating on Title 3 committees on her campus. She specializes in teaching students who have never been successful in mathematics. She is an expert in the area of basic skills in relation to the learning needs of students. She lives in California.

**Jennifer Crawford**received her BS in mathematics from the University of Minnesota–Duluth in 1995 and her MS in mathematics from the University of Minnesota–Twin Cities in 1998. She taught a wide range of courses at North Shore Community College in Danvers, Massachusetts for five years. She currently teaches at Normandale Community College in Bloomington, Minnesota, where her focus is working with developmental math students. She lives in Minneapolis, Minnesota, with her husband, two young children, and black lab.

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