Which of the following statements best explains why a closed balloon filled with helium gas rises in air? (a) Helium is a monatomic gas, whereas nearly all the molecules that make up air, such as nitrogen and oxygen, are diatomic. (b) The average speed of helium atoms is greater than the average speed of air molecules, and the greater speed of collisions with the balloon walls propels the balloon upward. (c) Because the helium atoms are of lower mass than the average air molecule, the helium gas is less dense than air. The mass of the balloon is thus less than the mass of the air displaced by its volume. (d) Because helium has a lower molar mass than the average air molecule, the helium atoms are in faster motion. This means that the temperature of the helium is greater than the air temperature. Hot gases tend to rise.

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