Thermodynamics: An Interactive Approach, 1st edition

Published by Pearson (November 13, 2014) © 2015

  • Subrata Bhattacharjee


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For the thermodynamics course in the Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering department

Thermodynamics: An Interactive Approach employs a layered approach that introduces the important concepts of mass, energy, and entropy early, and progressively refines them throughout the text. To create a rich learning experience for today’s thermodynamics student, this book melds traditional content with the web-based resources and learning tools of TEST: The Expert System for Thermodynamics (–an interactive platform that offers smart thermodynamic tables for property evaluation and analysis tools for mass, energy, entropy, and exergy analysis of open and closed systems.

MasteringEngineering for Thermodynamics is a total learning package. This innovative online program emulates the instructor’s office—hour environment, guiding students through engineering concepts from Thermodynamics with self-paced individualized coaching.

Teaching and Learning Experience

To provide a better teaching and learning experience, for both instructors and students, this program will:

  • Personalize Learning with Individualized Coaching: MasteringEngineering emulates the instructor’s office-hour environment using self-paced individualized coaching.
  • Introduce Fundamental Theories Early: A layered approach introduces important concepts early, and progressively refines them in subsequent chapters to lay a foundation for true understanding.
  • Engage Students with Interactive Content: To create a rich learning experience for today’s thermodynamics student, this book melds traditional content with web-based resources and learning tools.

Note: You are purchasing the standalone text. MasteringEngineering does not come automatically packaged with the text. To purchase MasteringEngineering, search for ISBN-10: 0133807975 / ISBN-13: 9780133807974. That package contains ISBN-10: 0130351172 / ISBN-13: 9780130351173 and ISBN-10: 0133810844 / ISBN-13: 9780133810844. MasteringEngineering is not a self-paced technology and should only be purchased when required by an instructor.

Personalize Learning with Individualized Coaching

MasteringEngineering is an innovative online program created to emulate the instructor’s office-hour environment, guiding students through engineering concepts from Thermodynamics with self-paced individualized coaching.

  • Self-paced tutorials provide students with answer-specific feedback and personal instruction.
  • All end-of-section and tutorial homework problems have been tagged to ABET Learning Outcomes A, E, and K. 
  • Video Solutions—complete, step-by-step solution walkthroughs of representative homework problems from the textbook—are assignable to offer students more visual learning opportunities. Video Solutions provide additional assistance for students with homework or preparing for an exam, offering hours of valuable review when students need help the most.

Note: You are purchasing the standalone text. MasteringEngineering does not come automatically packaged with the text. To purchase MasteringEngineering, search for ISBN-10: 0133807975 / ISBN-13: 9780133807974. That package contains ISBN-10: 0130351172 / ISBN-13: 9780130351173 and ISBN-10: 0133810844 / ISBN-13: 9780133810844. MasteringEngineering is not a self-paced technology and should only be purchased when required by an instructor.

Introduce Fundamental Theories Early

  • A Layered Approach Introduces Fundamental Theories Early: This textbook uses a layered approach–important concepts are introduced early based on physical arguments and numerical experiments, and progressively refined in subsequent chapters.
  • Each Chapter Develops a Distinctive Theme to Lay a Foundation for True Understanding: The book’s layered approach introduces the fundamental concepts of mass, energy, and entropy in chapters 1-5, and then expands on these concepts in chapters 6-15. Consistent terminology and symbols are used to increase clarity. Throughout the book physical arguments are used to simplify concepts, support mathematical arguments, and explain numerically derived conclusions.
  • “Did You Know?” Boxes Encourage Students to Learn and Evaluate on their Own: “Did You Know?” boxes increase curiosity as they instill a sense of benchmarking. For example, students will learn to estimate how much fuel will be needed to accelerate a truck to its freeway kinetic energy without consulting any tables or charts.

Engage Students with Interactive Content

TEST provides engaging learning tools and brings interactive visual connections to the classroom.The book is written in a way that allows instructors to decide the extent that TEST is integrated with homework or in the classroom. Theweb-based resources and engaging learning tools of TEST ( include:

  • TESTcalc Learning Tools: These thermodynamic calculators can be used to verify manual solutions, create thermodynamic plots, analyze a system or a process, and run “What-if” scenarios.
  • “What-if” Scenarios: Many problems in the book have a “What-if” Scenario, which asks for evaluation of the effect of changing an input variable on the analysis. Once a manual solution is verified through a TEST solution, a “What-if” study is almost effortless; students can simply change a parameter and click the Super-Calculate button to see its effect on the entire solution.
  • Tables: Property tables and charts are organized into easily accessible web pages that instructors can use in the classroom to create a powerful visual connection between a series of dull numbers and coordinates in a thermodynamic plot.
  • Animations: TEST provides a huge library of animations that is referenced throughout the book and integrated with the Problems module.
  • Interactive Animations: The simulations come with built-in parametric study tools.
  • Thermodynamic Diagrams: When states are calculated by a state TESTcalc, they can be instantly visualized on a thermodynamic plot. Another type of diagram called the flow diagram is introduced in the book, to graphically describe the inventory of energy, entropy, and exergy of a system or a process.


0. Introduction Thermodynamic System and its Interactions with the Surroundings

0.1 Thermodynamic Systems

0.2 Test and Animations

0.3 Examples of Thermodynamic Systems

0.4 Interactions Between The System and its Surroundings

0.5 Mass Interaction

0.6 Test and the Daemons

0.7 Energy, Work, and Heat

0.7.1 Heat and Heating Rate (Q, Q)

0.7.2 Work and Power (W, W#)

0.8 Work Transfer Mechanisms

0.8.1 Mechanical Work (WM, W#M)

0.8.2 Shaft Work (Wsh, W#sh)

0.1.5 Electrical Work (Wel , Wel#)

0.8.3 Boundary Work (WB, W#B)

0.8.4 Flow Work (W#F)

0.8.5 Net Work Transfer (W#, Wext)

0.8.6 Other Interactions

0.9 Closure


1. Description of a System: States And Properties

1.1 Consequences of Interactions

1.2 States

1.3 Macroscopic vs. Microscopic Thermodynamics

1.4 An Image Analogy

1.5 Properties of State

1.5.1 Property Evaluation by State Daemons

1.5.2 Properties Related to System Size (V, A, m, n, m # , V#, n # )

1.5.3 Density and Specific Volume (r, v)

1.5.4 Velocity and Elevation (V, z)

1.5.5 Pressure (p)

1.5.6 Temperature (T)

1.5.7 Stored Energy (E, KE, PE, U, e, ke, pe, u, E#)

1.5.8 Flow Energy and Enthalpy (j, J#, h, H#)

1.5.9 Entropy (S, s)

1.5.10 Exergy (f, c)

1.6 Property Classification

1.7 Evaluation of Extended State

1.8 Closure


2. Development of Balance Equations for Mass, Energy, and Entropy: Application to Closed-Steady Systems

2.1 Balance Equations

2.1.1 Mass Balance Equation

2.1.2 Energy Balance Equation

2.1.3 Entropy Balance Equation

2.1.4 Entropy and Reversibility

2.2 Closed-Steady Systems

2.3 Cycles—a Special Case of Closed-Steady Systems

2.3.1 Heat Engine

2.3.2 Refrigerator and Heat Pump

2.3.3 The Carnot Cycle

2.3.4 The Kelvin Temperature Scale

2.4 Closure


3. Evaluation of Properties: Material Models

3.1 Thermodynamic Equilibrium and States

3.1.1 Equilibrium and LTE (Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium)

3.1.2 The State Postulate

3.1.3 Differential Thermodynamic Relations

3.2 Material Models

3.2.1 State Daemons and TEST-Codes

3.3 The SL (Solid>Liquid) Model

3.3.1 SL Model Assumptions

3.3.2 Equations of State

3.3.3 Model Summary: SL Model

3.4 The PC (Phase-Change) Model

3.4.1 A New Pair of Properties—Qualities x and y

3.4.2 Numerical Simulation

3.4.3 Property Diagrams

3.4.4 Extending the Diagrams: The Solid Phase

3.4.5 Thermodynamic Property Tables

3.4.6 Evaluation of Phase Composition

3.4.7 Properties of Saturated Mixture

3.4.8 Subcooled or Compressed Liquid

3.4.9 Supercritical Vapor or Liquid

3.4.10 Sublimation States

3.4.11 Model Summary—PC Model


3.5.1 The IG (Ideal Gas) and PG (Perfect Gas) Models

3.5.2 IG and PG Model Assumptions

3.5.3 Equations of State

3.5.4 Model Summary: PG and IG Models

3.5.5 The RG (Real Gas) Model

3.5.6 RG Model Assumptions

3.5.7 Compressibility Charts

3.5.8 Other Equations of State

3.5.9 Model Summary: RG Model

3.6 Mixture Models

3.6.1 Vacuum

3.7 Standard Reference State and Reference Values

3.8 Selection of a Model

3.9 Closure


4. Mass, Energy, and Entropy Analysis of Open-Steady Systems

4.1 Governing Equations and Device Efficiencies

4.1.1 TEST and the Open-Steady Daemons

4.1.2 Energetic Efficiency

4.1.3 Internally Reversible System

4.1.4 Isentropic Efficiency

4.2 Comprehensive Analysis

4.2.1 Pipes, Ducts, or Tubes

4.2.2 Nozzles and Diffusers

4.2.3 Turbines

4.2.4 Compressors, Fans, and Pumps

4.2.5 Throttling Valves

4.2.6 Heat Exchangers

4.2.7 TEST and the Multi-Flow Non-Mixing Daemons

4.2.8 Mixing Chambers and Separators

4.2.9 TEST and the Multi-Flow Mixing Daemons

4.3 Closure


5. Mass, Energy, and Entropy Analysis of Unsteady Systems

5.1 Unsteady Processes

5.1.1 Closed Processes

5.1.2 TEST and the Closed-Process Daemons

5.1.3 Energetic Efficiency and Reversibility

5.1.4 Uniform Closed Processes

5.1.5 Non-Uniform Systems

5.1.6 TEST and the Non-Uniform Closed-Process Daemons

5.1.7 Open Processes

5.1.8 TEST and Open-Process Daemons

5.2 Transient Analysis

5.2.1 Closed Transient Systems

5.2.2 Isolated Systems

5.2.3 Mechanical Systems

5.2.4 Open Transient Systems

5.3 Differential Processes

5.4 Thermodynamic Cycle as a Closed Process

5.4.1 Origin of Internal Energy

5.4.2 Clausius Inequality and Entropy

5.5 Closure


6. Exergy Balance Equation: Application to Steady and Unsteady Systems

6.1 Exergy Balance Equation

6.1.1 Exergy, Reversible Work, and Irreversibility

6.1.2 TEST Daemons for Exergy Analysis

6.2 Closed-Steady Systems

6.2.1 Exergy Analysis of Cycles

6.3 Open-Steady Systems

6.4 Closed Processes

6.5 Open Processes

6.6 Closure


7. Reciprocating Closed Power Cycles

7.1 The Closed Carnot Heat Engine

7.1.1 Significance of the Carnot Engine

7.2 IC Engine Terminology

7.3 Air-Standard Cycles

7.3.1 TEST and the Reciprocating Cycle Daemons

7.4 Otto Cycle

7.4.1 Cycle Analysis

7.4.2 Qualitative Performance Predictions

7.4.3 Fuel Consideration

7.5 Diesel Cycle

7.5.1 Cycle Analysis

7.5.2 Fuel Consideration

7.6 Dual Cycle

7.7 Atkinson and Miller Cycles

7.8 Stirling Cycle

7.9 Two-Stroke Cycle

7.10 Fuels

7.11 Closure


8. Open Gas Power Cycle

8.1 The Gas Turbine

8.2 The Air-Standard Brayton Cycle

8.2.1 TEST and the Open Gas Power-Cycle Daemons

8.2.2 Fuel Consideration

8.2.3 Qualitative Performance Predictions

8.2.4 Irreversibilities in an Actual Cycle

8.2.5 Exergy Accounting of Brayton Cycle

8.3 Gas Turbine With Regeneration

8.4 Gas Turbine With Reheat

8.5 Gas Turbine With Intercooling and Reheat

8.6 Regenerative Gas Turbine With Reheat and Intercooling

8.7 Gas Turbines For Jet Propulsion

8.7.1 The Momentum Balance Equation

8.7.2 Jet Engine Performance

8.7.3 Air-Standard Cycle for Turbojet Analysis

8.8 Other Forms of Jet Propulsion

8.9 Closure


9. Open Vapor Power Cycles

9.1 The Steam Power Plant

9.2 The Rankine Cycle

9.2.1 Carbon Footprint

9.2.2 TEST and the Open Vapor Power Cycle Daemons

9.2.3 Qualitative Performance Predictions

9.2.4 Parametric Study of the Rankine Cycle

9.2.5 Irreversibilities in an Actual Cycle

9.2.6 Exergy Accounting of Rankine Cycle

9.3 Modification of Rankine Cycle

9.3.1 Reheat Rankine Cycle

9.3.2 Regenerative Rankine Cycle

9.4 Cogeneration

9.5 Binary Vapor Cycle

9.6 Combined Cycle

9.7 Closure


10. Refrigeration Cycles

10.1 Refrigerators and Heat Pump

10.2 Test and the Refrigeration Cycle Daemons

10.3 Vapor-Refrigeration Cycles

10.3.1 Carnot Refrigeration Cycle

10.3.2 Vapor Compression Cycle

10.3.3 Analysis of an Ideal Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle

10.3.4 Qualitative Performance Predictions

10.3.5 Actual Vapor-Compression Cycle

10.3.6 Components of a Vapor-Compression Plant

10.3.7 Exergy Accounting of Vapor Compression Cycle

10.3.8 Refrigerant Selection

10.3.9 Cascade Refrigeration Systems

10.3.10 Multistage Refrigeration with Flash Chamber

10.4 Absorption Refrigeration Cycle

10.5 Gas Refrigeration Cycles

10.5.1 Reversed Brayton Cycle

10.5.2 Linde-Hampson Cycle

10.6 Heat Pump Systems

10.7 Closure


11. Evaluation of Properties: Thermodynamic Relations

11.1 Thermodynamic Relations

11.1.1 The Tds Relations

11.1.2 Partial Differential Relations

11.1.3 The Maxwell Relations

11.1.4 The Clapeyron Equation

11.1.5 The Clapeyron-Clausius Equation

11.2 Evaluation of Properties

11.2.1 Internal Energy

11.2.2 Enthalpy

11.2.3 Entropy

11.2.4 Volume Expansivity and Compressibility

11.2.5 Specific Heats

11.2.6 Joule-Thompson Coefficient

11.3 The Real Gas (RG) Model

11.4 Mixture Models

11.4.1 Mixture Composition

11.4.2 Mixture Daemons

11.4.3 PG and IG Mixture Models

11.4.4 Mass, Energy, and Entropy Equations for IG-Mixtures

11.4.5 Real Gas Mixture Model

11.5 Closure


12. Psychrometry

12.1 The Moist Air Model

12.1.1 Model Assumptions

12.1.2 Saturation Processes

12.1.3 Absolute and Relative Humidity

12.1.4 Dry- and Wet-Bulb Temperatures

12.1.5 Moist Air (MA) Daemons

12.1.6 More properties of Moist Air

12.2 Mass And Energy Balance Equations

12.2.1 Open-Steady Device

12.2.2 Closed Process

12.3 Adiabatic Saturation and Wet-Bulb Temperature

12.4 Psychrometric Chart

12.5 Air-Conditioning Processes

12.5.1 Simple Heating or Cooling

12.5.2 Heating with Humidification

12.5.3 Cooling with Dehumidification

12.5.4 Evaporative Cooling

12.5.5 Adiabatic Mixing

12.5.6 Wet Cooling Tower

12.6 Closure


13. Combustion

13.1 Combustion Reaction

13.1.1 Combustion Daemons

13.1.2 Fuels

13.1.3 Air

13.1.4 Combustion Products

13.2 System Analysis

13.3 Open-Steady Device

13.3.1 Enthalpy of Formation

13.3.2 Energy Analysis

13.3.3 Entropy Analysis

13.3.4 Exergy Analysis

13.3.5 Isothermal Combustion—Fuel Cells

13.3.6 Adiabatic Combustion—Power Plants

13.4 Closed Process

13.5 Combustion Efficiencies

13.6 Closure


14. Equilibrium

14.1 Criteria for Equilibrium

14.2 Equilibrium of Gas Mixtures

14.3 Phase Equilibrium

14.3.1 Osmotic Pressure and Desalination

14.4 Chemical Equilibrium

14.4.1 Equilibrium Daemons

14.4.2 Equilibrium Composition

14.5 Closure


15. Gas Dynamics

15.1 One-Dimensional Flow

15.1.1 Static, Stagnation and Total Properties

15.1.2 The Gas Dynamics Daemon

15.2 Isentropic Flow of a Perfect Gas

15.3 Mach Number

15.4 Shape of an Isentropic Duct

15.5 Isentropic Table for Perfect Gases

15.6 Effect of Back Pressure: Converging Nozzle

15.7 Effect of Back Pressure: Converging-Diverging Nozzle

15.7.1 Normal Shock

15.7.2 Normal Shock in a Nozzle

15.8 Nozzle and Diffuser Coefficients

15.9 Closure





Professor Subrata Bhattacharjee, known by his friends as Sooby, earned a B.Tech. degree in Mechanical Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur in 1983 and his Ph.D. from Washington State University, Pullman, USA in 1988. After two years of post-doctoral work on a NASA project, he joined San Diego State University in 1991 and currently holds Professorship in Mechanical Engineering Department and Adjunct Professorship in Computer Science Department.

Professor Bhattacharjee has been actively involved in research in radiation heat transfer, combustion, computational thermodynamics, and development of software for educational purposes. For his dissertation, he developed a modified two-flux method (Effective Angle Method) for calculating radiative source term and used this model to study two-way coupling between radiation and fluid dynamics in a laminar diffusion flame. Working on a project on jet flow in boundary layers, he came upon a new non-dimensional group that compares a known pressure drop with viscous forces. This number is being used in textbook and literature in connection with electronic cooling.

Throughout his research career, Dr. Bhattacharjee has been interested in uncovering the mechanism of flame spread over solid fuels, especially in a microgravity environment. His work helped establish the dominance of radiation heat transfer in near quiescent environment. He has been a PI and co-PI of several projects funded by NASA. Some of his contributions include: 1. Discovery of the phenomenon that flame over thick fuel bed in a quiescent microgravity environment self-extinguishes irrespective of the oxygen level; 2. Development of a formula for a critical thickness that renders a fuel thick in such an environment; 3. Development of two formulas for flame spread rate, one in the thin limit and one in the thick limit, which are the only flame spread formulas ever developed in the microgravity regime. Several of his experiments on flames over solids have been conducted aboard NASA's Space Shuttles, Sounding Rockets, and Russia's Mir Space Station. One of his recently proposed experiments is currently under design to be conducted in the International Space Station.

Under a current grant from NASA, Prof. Bhattacharjee and his team is building a 10 m tall Flame Tower at SDSU to conduct some fundamental experiments to predict the behavior of flames in a gravity free environment of a spacecraft. These ground based work is in support of the proposed space based experiment. In this work, researchers from Gifu University, Japan, are collaborating with SDSU.

Supported by NSF, Dr. Bhattacharjee has been developing a novel cyber infrastructure for multi-scale approach to thermodynamic data and chemical equilibrium services. Users can now plug in these services and "outsource" the data used in their thermofluids calculations. By simply altering key words such as NASA, NIST, or AB-INITIO, for example, they can change the source of data used in their research applications. Likewise, equilibrium calculations can be integrated into any CFD code written in FORTRAN, MATLAB, or any other language through a relatively new technology called web services. The chemical equilibrium program developed by Dr. Bhattacharjee's group is equally powerful as NASA's benchmark CEA and offers a built-in parallel architecture.

Prof. Bhattacharjee's passion for making thermodynamics easier to master led to the development of a web based software called TEST, the Expert System for thermodynamics (, which has been used by students, professionals and educators from around the world. Several articles and one book have been written about the use of TEST in thermodynamic education.

Winner of Outstanding Faculty Award, Monty Award at SDSU, Most Influential Faculty award, Faculty Friend Award, Outstanding Engineering Educator award, Best Paper award, and ASME Fellow award, Professor Bhattacharjee can be contacted at

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