Reading, Writing and Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for Teaching K-12 English Learners, 7th edition

Published by Pearson (January 22, 2016) © 2017

  • Suzanne F. Peregoy
  • Owen F. Boyle San Jose State University

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ISBN-13: 9780134037141
Reading, Writing and Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for Teaching K-12 English Learners
Published 2016

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ISBN-13: 9780134014548
Reading, Writing, and Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for Teaching K-12 English Learners
Published 2016


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Brief Table of Contents
1. English Learners in 21st-Century Classrooms
2. Language and Language Acquisition
3. Classroom Practices for Effective English Learner Instruction
4. The New Literacies and English Learners
5. Oral English Development in Second Language Acquisition
6. First Steps to Literacy: English Learners Beginning to Write and Read
7. Words and Meanings: English Learners' Vocabulary Development
8. English Learners and Process Writing
9. Reading and Literature Instruction for English Learners
10. Content Reading and Writing: Prereading and During Reading
11. Content Reading and Writing: Postreading Strategies for Organizing and Remembering

Detailed Table of Contents
Preface xviii
1. English Learners in st-Century Classrooms
Who Are English Learners and How Can I Get to Know Them?
Learning about Your Students' Languages and Cultures
Getting Basic Information When a New Student Arrives
Classroom Activities That Help You Get to Know Your Students
How Do Cultural Differences Affect Teaching and Learning?
Definitions of Culture
Who Am I in the Lives of My Students?
Becoming an Effective Participant -- Observer in Your Own Classroom
Sociocultural Factors Affecting Language Use in the Classroom
Culturally Related Responses to Classroom Organization
Literacy Traditions from Home and Community
How Can I Ease New Students into the Routines of My Classroom?
First Things First: Safety and Security
Creating a Sense of Belonging
How Do Current Policy Trends Affect English Learner Education?
Academic Standards and Assessment
Common Core State Standards (CCSS)
English Language Development Standards and Assessment
Curriculum Standards, High-Stakes Testing, and "No Child Left Behind"
Socioeconomic Status: Predictor of Standardized Test Scores
Education Policy Specific to English Learners
Newer Technologies: Purposes, Policies, and Assessments
What Kinds of Programs Exist to Meet the Needs of English Learners?
English Learner Program Models
Research on Bilingual and ESL Programs Serving English Learners
Internet Resources

2. Language and Language Acquisition
How Have Language Proficiency and Communicative Competence Been Defined?
Language Use in Social Context: A Classroom Conversation
Bilingual Communicative Competence
Figurative Language
What Is Academic Language?
Contrasting Social and Academic Language
Academic Language Qualities
Academic Language Functions
Academic Language Linguistic Features
The Role of Background Knowledge in Academic Language Use
How Does Language Relate to Power, Social Standing, and Identity?
Language as an Instrument and Symbol of Power
Language or Dialect?
How a Dialect Becomes the "Standard" Language
How Language Variety Affects the Power and Prestige of Its Users
The Role of a Standard Language
Misuse of the Term Dialect
What Theories Have Been Proposed to Explain Language Acquisition?
First Language Acquisition Theories
Behaviorist Theory
Innatist Theory
Interactionist Theory
Summary of First Language Acquisition Theories
Second Language Acquisition Theories
Behaviorist Perspective
Innatist Perspective
Krashen's Five Hypotheses
Interactionist Perspective
Summary of Second Language Acquisition Theories
What Are Some Traits and Sequences in English Language Acquisition?
Interlanguage and Fossilization
Developmental Sequences in English Language Acquisition
What Factors Influence Second Language Development in School?
Social Context of the Language Learning Environment
Primary Language Development
Age and the Interplay of Sociocultural and Psychological Factors
Sociocultural Factors
Personality Factors
Cognitive Factors
Teacher Expectations and Learner Errors
Internet Resources

3. Classroom Practices for Effective English Learner Instruction
How Do Curriculum Standards Serve English Learners?
How Is Instruction Differentiated to Meet the Varied Needs of English Learners?
How Is Sheltered Instruction (SDAIE) Planned and Implemented?
A Science Example with Fourth-Graders
A Literature Example with Kindergartners
A Social Science Example with High School Students
Planning for Differentiated, Sheltered English Instruction/SDAIE
Response to Intervention (RTI)
How Does Group Work Facilitate Content and Language Learning?
Collaborative Groups
Cooperative Learning Methods
Phases of Cooperative Group Development
How Does Thematic Instruction Promote Content and Language Learning?
Organizing Thematic Instruction
Meaning and Purpose
Building on Prior Knowledge
Integrated Opportunities to Use Oral and Written Language for Learning Purposes
Scaffolding for Support
Functional and Academic Literacy Uses in Thematic Instruction
Creating Variety in Language and Literacy Uses
Routines as Scaffolds
Literacy Scaffolds for English Learners
How Are English Learners Assessed?
Definition and Purposes of English Learner Assessment
Basic Concepts and Terms Used in Assessment
Identification and Placement of Students Needing Language Education Support Services
Re-Designation to Fully English Proficient
Limitations of Standardized Language Proficiency Tests
Program Evaluation
Principles of Classroom-Based Assessment
Keeping Cultural Considerations in Mind
Planning Systematic, Classroom-Based Assessment
Internet Resources

4. The New Literacies and English Learners
What Are the New Literacies for st-Century Technologies?
How Can We Help Students Use the Internet Effectively and Safely?
Comparing Online Reading and Traditional Reading
The Importance of Safe, Responsible, and Ethical Internet Use
Helping Students Evaluate Websites: Bias, Reliability, and Accuracy
How Can Teachers Use Technology to Differentiate Instruction for English Learners?
How May Web . and Web . Be Used for Academic Learning?
Using Web . for Classroom Learning
Scavenger Hunts
Individual and Group Research Projects
Using Web . for Classroom Learning
Classroom Uses of Blogs
Classroom Uses of Wikis
Podcasts and Videos
Classroom Uses of Podcasts and Videos
Social Networking
Classroom Sites Where You Can Restrict Access
Why and How You Might Use Social Networking in the Classroom
Teacher Networking Sites
What Are Some Additional Tools and Resources for Teachers?
RSS: Keeping Track of New Information on Your Favorite Sites
A Glimpse of the Future
Internet Resources

5. Oral English Development in Second Language Acquisition
Why Is an Integrated Approach to English Language Arts Important?
Functional Integration of Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing
Developmental Relationships among Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing
Oral Language in Perspective
Form, Function, and Social Context in Oral Language Use
What Traits Describe the Oral Proficiency of Beginning and Intermediate English Learners?
Second Language Oral Proficiency of Beginning English Learners
Second Language Oral Proficiency of Intermediate English Learners
What Are Some Strategies That Promote Oral Language Development?
Using Games for English Language Development
Podcasts to Enhance English Learning in Your Classroom
Dramatizing Poetry
Show and Tell
One Looks, One Doesn't
Recording Students' Re-Creations of Wordless Book Stories
Recording and Dubbing a Television Show
Choral Reading
Riddles and Jokes
What Are Some Academic Language Features of Oral Instruction in Math, Science, and Social Studies?
Academic Language Features of Mathematics
Academic Language Features of Science
Academic Language Features of Social Studies
Facilitating Oral Language Development during Academic Instruction
Teacher Talk during Academic Instruction
Scaffolding Student Use of Oral Language for Academic Purposes
How May We Assess English Learners' Oral Language Competence?
The Student Oral Language Observation Matrix
Example of a SOLOM Observation and Scoring
Instructional Implications Based on Solom Scoring
Checklists and Anecdotal Observations
How May Content Instruction Be Differentiated to Promote Oral Language Development?
Internet Resources

6. First Steps to Literacy: English Learners Beginning to Write and Read
What Does Research Tell Us about Early Literacy Development?
Historical Overview of Early Literacy Instruction
Reading Readiness Perspective
Emergent Literacy Perspective
Balanced Comprehensive Literacy Perspective
Early Literacy Development in English as a Non-Native Language
Whole-Part-Whole Cycle for English Learners of All Ages
Special Needs of Older, Preliterate Learners
New Literacies and English Language Learners
Which Print Functions and Forms Are Acquired during Early Literacy Development?
Highlighting Literacy Functions in Your Classroom
Print Concepts Children Develop in the Emergent Literacy Phase
Exploring the Visual Form of Written Language
Alphabetic Writing Systems: Connecting Sounds and Symbols
Invented Spelling: Working Out Sound/Symbol Correspondences
How May Family and Community Nurture Early Literacy Development?
Family Practices That Promote Literacy Development
Family Literacy Programs
Promoting Parent Involvement in English Learners' Schooling
Making Parent Involvement a School-Wide Goal
Taking School Activities Home
Which Classroom Strategies Promote Early Literacy Development?
Early Literacy Goals
Creating a Literacy-Rich Classroom Environment
Books, Books, Books!
Using Daily Routines to Highlight the Forms and Functions of Print
Morning Message
Classroom Rules and Procedures
Wall Dictionary
Reading Aloud to Students
Shared Writing and Reading Using the Language Experience Approach
Dialogue Journals
Helping Students Recognize and Spell Words Independently
Using Big Books to Teach Sight Words and Phonics
Strategies to Increase Students' Sight Word Vocabulary
Word Families
Invented Spelling and Word Recognition
Developmental Levels in Student Spelling
Summary of Early Literacy Instructional Strategies
How May English Learners' Early Literacy Development Be Assessed?
How May Early Literacy Instruction Be Differentiated for English Learners?
Internet Resources

7. Words and Meanings: English Learners' Vocabulary Development
What Does Research Show about English Learners' Vocabulary Development?
What Kinds of Words Do Students Need to Know?
How Do Students Learn New Words?
How Do We Differentiate Vocabulary Assessment and Instruction?
English Language Proficiency Considerations
Primary Language Proficiency Considerations
Vocabulary Assessment Prior to Instruction
Planning Differentiated Vocabulary Instruction
Fifth-Grade Science Lesson: Differentiated Instruction
Dictionaries as a Resource for Differentiating Instruction
Picture Dictionaries
Bilingual Dictionaries
Monolingual Language Learner Dictionaries
What Are Some Beginning and Intermediate English Learner Characteristics and Teaching Strategies?
Beginning English Learner Characteristics and Teaching Strategies
Total Physical Response (TPR)
Web Tools for Learning Vocabulary
Word Cards
Word Wall Dictionary
Working with Idioms
Intermediate English Learner Characteristics and
Teaching Strategies
Word Wheels
Language Wheels for Verbs, Adjectives, Adverbs, and Cognates
Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy
Word Wizard
Contextual Redefinition
List—Group—Label—Map for Elementary and Secondary Students
Vocabulary Journals
Teaching Students How to Use Dictionaries Effectively
Teaching Prefixes and Suffixes
Word Learning Strategies Older Students Found Useful
How Do We Assess ELs' Vocabulary Progress?
Internet Resources

8. English Learners and Process Writing
What Does Research Tell Us about Writing in a Second Language?
What Is Process Writing and How Does It Benefit English Learners?
Students' Responses to "I Remember"
How Does Process Writing Benefit English Learners?
What Are the Six Traits of Good Writing and How Can They Help English Learners?
Using Webtools with Process Writing: Blogs and Wikis
What Are Some Collaborative Contexts for Process Writing?
Peer Response Groups
A Sixth-Grade Class Works in Response Groups
Peer Editing Groups
Publishing Student Writing
What Are Some Beginning and Intermediate English Learner Characteristics and Teaching Strategies?
Description of Beginning Writers
Strategies to Assist Beginning Writers
Oral Discussion and Brainstorming Ideas
Partner Stories Using Pictures and Wordless Books
Concept Books: Creating a Teaching Library
Peek-a-Boo Books for Younger Students and Riddle Books for Older Students
Pattern Poems for Elementary and Secondary School Students
From Personal Journals to Dialogue Journals to Buddy Journals
Improvisational Sign Language
Life Murals
Description of Intermediate Writers
Strategies for Intermediate Writers
Show and Not Tell
Sentence Combining
Sentence Shortening
Sentence Models
Student Examples of the Model
How Can We Assess English Learners' Writing Progress and Differentiate Instruction?
Portfolio Assessment
Balancing Goals: Fluency, Form, and Correctness
Balancing Instruction: Scaffolds, Models, and Direct Instruction
Helping Students Deal with Errors in Their Writing
Example of a Differentiated Lesson Plan for English Learners
Internet Resources

9. Reading and Literature Instruction for English Learners
What Does Research Tell Us about Reading in a Second Language?
Second Language Readers
What Role Does Background Knowledge Play in English Learners'
Reading Comprehension?
Reading Processes of Proficient Readers
What Is Metacognition? "Thinking about Thinking"
What Role Does Text Structure Play in Reading Comprehension?
Why Is Internet Reading Thought of as a New Literacy?
How Do Guided Reading, Literature Study, and Independent Reading
Promote Literacy?
Guided Reading
Literature Study: Response Groups
Steps That Prepare Students to Work in Response Groups
How Literature Response Benefits English Learners
How Can We Encourage Independent Reading?
Approaches to Independent Reading
Helping Students Choose Books of Appropriate Difficulty
What Are the Characteristics and Strategies for Beginning and Intermediate Second Language Readers?
Beginning Second Language Readers: Characteristics and Strategies
Language-Experience Approach
Providing Quality Literature for Beginners
Pattern Books
Illustrating Stories and Poems
Shared Reading with Big Books
Directed Listening-Thinking Activity
Readers' Theater
Story Mapping
Intermediate Second Language Readers: Characteristics and Strategies
Cognitive Mapping
Directed Reading-Thinking Activity
Literature Response Journals
Developing Scripts for Readers' Theater
Adapting Stories into Plays and Skits for Live or Video presentations
How Do We Assess Second Language Readers' Progress?
Assessing with Materials Students Bring to Class
Informal Assessment
Miscue Analysis
Miscue Procedure
Interpreting Miscues
Informal Reading Inventories
Determining Independent, Instructional, and Frustration Reading Levels
Independent Reading Level
Instructional Reading Level
Frustration Reading Level
Running Records
Procedures for Running Records
Strengths of Running Records
Other Reading Assessment Resources
Portfolio Assessment
Student Self-Assessment
How Do We Differentiate Reading and Literature Instruction?
Internet Resources

10. Content Reading and Writing: Prereading and During Reading
What Does Research Tell Us about Content Area Reading and Writing for English Learners?
Looking Closely at the Reading Process of Mature Readers
Resources That English Learners Bring to Reading in English
How Do Readers Interact with Longer, More Complex Texts?
Aesthetic and Efferent Interactions with Texts
Effects of Text Structure on Comprehension and Memory
Cohesive Ties/Signal Words
Headings and Subheadings
Teaching Text Structure: A Classroom Example
Literary Structure
Discussion of Story Elements
Metacognition and Learning from Text
How Can We Match Students with Texts for Optimal Learning?
Evaluating Students' Interaction with Text Using the Group Reading Inventory
Evaluating Your Own Interaction with One Text
Which Strategies Promote Reading Comprehension?
Prereading Strategies: Developing Motivation, Purpose, and Background Knowledge
Teacher Talk: Making Purposes Clear
Field Trips and Films
Simulation Games
Using Newer Technologies to Enhance Comprehension
Developing Vocabulary before Students Read a Text
Structured Overviews
Preview Guides
Anticipation Guides
During Reading Strategies: Monitoring Comprehension
Using Headings and Subheadings
Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA)
Guided Reading
ReQuest Procedure
Vocabulary Strategies during Reading
Using Clustering to Develop Vocabulary in Context
Jigsaw Procedure
Learning Logs
How Can We Assess Students and Differentiate Instruction for Content Reading?
Internet Resources

11. Content Reading and Writing: Postreading Strategies for Organizing and Remembering
Which Postreading Strategies Are Effective with English Learners and Why?
Semantic Feature Analysis for Vocabulary Development after Reading
Strategies to Organize and Remember Information
Venn Diagrams
Reciprocal Teaching
Summarizing and Rehearsing Information with Mapping
How Can Writing Be Used as a Learning Tool across the Curriculum?
Journals and Learning Logs
Developing Teacher- and Student-Generated Topics in Content Areas
Photo Essays: Combining Direct Experience, the Visual Mode, and Writing
Written and Oral Collaborative Research Projects
K-W-L, a Strategy That Fosters Thinking before, during, and after Reading
How Do Theme Studies Provide a Meaningful Learning Context for English Learners?
Introducing the Topic and Choosing Study Questions
Organizing Instruction
Instructional Modifications for English Learners
How Can Content Learning Be Assessed?
Portfolio Assessment
Selecting Materials for the Portfolio
Evaluating Portfolios
Using Multiple Measures for Assessment
How May Content Area Instruction Be Differentiated for English Learners?
Internet Resources

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