Improve student vocabulary and memory with these classroom activities

Vaughan Jones
Vaughan Jones
Students working together laughing with a laptop in front of them

Reading time: 6.5 minutes

Vaughan Jones has more than 30 years of experience as an EFL Teacher, Trainer and Author. He’s lived and worked in France, Japan and Spain, and has worked to produce a number of coursebooks, including Focus, an English language learning series for upper-secondary students.

In this post he explores some tips and techniques for language teachers to help students improve their ability to remember vocabulary. 

Teaching english vocabulary in 5 easy steps
Privacy and cookies
By viewing this third-party content from you agree to their terms and conditions, privacy notice and acknowledge they may use cookies and pixels for information and analytics gathering.

Focus on vocabulary and memory

All learning is remembering, said Plato… or was it Socrates? Anyway, I'm sure all of us agree that memory plays a central role in learning a foreign language and in particular, learning new words. The first two thousand are easy. As research tells us, approximately 80% of almost any text in English is made up of the 2,000 most frequent words.

Students meet these words repeatedly whatever they read or listen to, and whether they like it or not. And presumably they like it. Why? Because we know that repeated exposure is vital for long-term memorization, it effectively means that the first 2,000 words come 'for free'.

But what about the next thousand and the thousand after that? Researchers suggest that a student probably needs to know about 5,000 English words to pass the Cambridge First Certificate Exam and maybe upwards of 10,000 to be considered genuinely C2 level on the CEFR scale. For reference, an educated speaker of English as a first language will probably have a passive vocabulary of around 20,000 words.

What can we do to help our language students learn the thousands of less frequent words in the English language? It's not easy, that's for sure. There is no magic bullet. But here are some thoughts based on my own experience of many years in the classroom.

Focus on the most useful words

Sounds obvious, doesn't it? But time is always limited, so make sure that the words you are asking your learners to learn are the most useful, which probably means the most frequent for their particular stage in the learning process.

Usually your coursebook will do this for you. Vocabulary selection in the different levels of Focus is informed by the frequency criteria of the Global Scale of English. So in level 1 you might teach 'silly' (A1) but you wouldn't teach 'preposterous' (C1). 

Focus on memorable first encounters

You never get a second chance to make a first impression. This is as true for words as it is for people. Encountering words for the first time in richly evocative, personalized, meaningful or unexpected contexts can help the memorization process. The more neurological stimulation, the better.

Focus on teaching effective word-learning strategies

This should be an ongoing 'learner training' aspect of your language teaching. Firstly, encourage students to expose themselves to as much English as possible outside the classroom: music lyrics, tweets, blog posts, vlogs, video clips, extensive reading and listening (including podcasts and spoken word), and watching films and TV series with English subtitles. These are just a few obvious sources.

Secondly, train language students on how to discover meanings and recognize correct usage: guessing from context, using dictionaries effectively or learning basic meanings of high-frequency affixes.

Finally, teach your students different ways of recording vocabulary. Encourage them to create paper or digital flashcards, introduce them to mnemonic systems such as the keyword method or simply explore more creative ways of noting words down.

Focus on systematic recycling

As you can't guarantee that words outside the top 2,000 will automatically reoccur at conveniently spaced intervals, it's your job to engineer systematic re-encounters with the new words you teach. A coursebook like Focus incorporates frequent recycling of target vocabulary, but it's never enough.

Also, what about all that vocabulary you taught when, for whatever reason, the lesson took a different direction and you went 'off-script' and started scribbling words on the board that weren't even in the coursebook?

My own very low-tech solution to capturing all those words is to institute a class scribe. Students take turns being the class scribe. They are given a blank sheet of paper at the beginning of the lesson and their role is simply to record any new language. This 'data', along with the target vocabulary in my coursebook, becomes my learning corpus. Having a class scribe:

  • provides a unique record of each lesson
  • helps improve classroom dynamics
  • can reveal learning styles and difficulties

Five vocabulary activities to focus on students' vocabulary and memory

So now I know which words I've taught, I can make sure that I recycle them at regular intervals. How do I do that? By equipping myself with a repertoire of tried-and-trusted 5 to 10-minute activities that can be used as lead-ins, warmers or fillers. Activities that require very little or no preparation and can be adapted to cover a wide variety of different lexical areas. Here are my favorite five. 

1. Board bingo

Write down 12 to 15 words you want to revise on the board. Ask the students to choose five of the words and write them down. When they've done that, tell the students that you're going to read out dictionary definitions of the words in random order and that they should cross out their words if they think they hear the definition. When they've crossed out all five words, they shout Bingo. Make sure you keep a record of the word definitions you call out so that you can check the students' answers.

2. Odd one out

An old favorite. Think of the English vocabulary, pronunciation or grammar point you want to revise. Write five words on the board and ask students which one is the odd one out. The students then explain why. This usually relates to the meaning of the word, so in the following example, the odd one out is dog. 

pink /  red  /  dog  /  blue  /  yellow

However, you could have any criteria you like, say, the number of syllables. In that case, the odd one out would be yellow. In fact, the more unexpected the criteria, the better. The important thing is that they're looking at and thinking about the words you want them to revise.

3. Category dictation

Choose the language you want to review and devise a way of categorizing it into preferably two categories. Write the category headings on the board and ask the students to copy them. Then dictate the words (10-12 maximum) slowly and clearly, and ask the students to write them down in the correct category. For example, say you want to revise jobs, your categories might be jobs you do inside and jobs you do outside.

Then, dictate the words, eg a farmer, an archaeologist, a surgeon, an au pair, a vet, etc. The students write down the words in the correct category. When you've dictated the words, ask students to compare their lists.

4. Scrabble

Choose a lexical set you want to revise. Students work in pairs. They'll need a piece of paper, preferably graph paper with squares on.

Choose a topic, for example school subjects. Student A writes 'Across' words and Student D writes 'Down' words. It's a good idea to provide the first word across and make sure that it's a long one.

Student D then adds another school subject down the paper from top to bottom. This word must intersect with the school subject written across the page.

Student A then writes another school subject that intersects with the school subject Student D has written down. Students continue taking turns to write in their own words.

Students build up words like on a Scrabble board until they can't think of any more school subjects. (You could make it into a game by saying that the last person to write a school subject is a winner.) Note that students must leave one square between each word – this is why it's better and clearer to use squared paper.

5. Random letters

This activity is good for revising any type of vocabulary. Ask the students to call out any seven letters from the alphabet. Write the letters scattered on the board. Then ask the students in pairs to think of a word beginning with each letter on the board. The most obvious criteria is to revise words from a specific lexical set that you have taught recently, eg jobs, clothes, food, animals, etc.

Alternatively, you could simply ask them for words they've noted down in lessons over the past two weeks. Another possibility would be to find the most interesting words they can from the Student Book unit that you've just finished. If the lexical set you want them to revise is particularly rich, you could ask the students to think of as many words for each letter as they can in, say, three minutes: make it into a contest to find the most words.

It's always worth spending time thinking about how you can help your students to learn words more efficiently and more effectively. Way back in the 1970s, the linguist David Wilkins summed up the importance of vocabulary learning thus: 'Without grammar, very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary, nothing can be conveyed.' 


You'll find lots more vocabulary-focused activities in Focus, a best-selling English learning series for upper-secondary students. It includes a unique vocabulary-building program and the 3Ms methodology.

It includes BBC video content for motivating and engaging English lessons and more thorough Use of English preparation. Focus offers everything teachers and students need to achieve success in their language goals and exams. 


  • Bilbrough, N. (2011) Memory Activities for Language Learning. Cambridge University Press
  • Cook, G. (2000) Language Play, Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • Thornbury, S (2002) How to Teach Vocabulary. Pearson
  • Webb, S. & Nation, P. (2017) How Vocabulary is Learned. Oxford University Press

More blogs from Pearson

  • Two coworkers stood in a office looking at a tablet together.

    Evaluating the ROI of Language Learning for DEI Initiatives

    By Pearson Languages

    Reading time: 5 minutes

    Businesses are increasingly prioritizing workforce development and implementing Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) strategies to promote social responsibility and enhance organizational success. Language learning has emerged as a crucial aspect of these initiatives, providing companies with a clear pathway to achieving transformative results.

    For HR professionals and trainers, understanding the return on investment (ROI) of integrating language learning into DEI programs is essential for a forward-thinking business strategy and to ensure language training is always on your organization's mind.

  • A teacher sat with students at a table, the students are using tablets.

    Benefits of using tablets in the primary classroom

    By Jacqueline Martin

    Reading time: 5 minutes

    Interactive whiteboards, PCs and laptops are common in many schools worldwide, but have you ever considered using tablets in your young learners' classes? 

    Tablets can be used for many things. Online research, watching and creating videos, playing games, and digital storytelling are just a few examples. Of course, there's also the added environmental benefit of going paper-free.

    In this post, we're going to explore some of the reasons why using tablets can be beneficial in the young learner's classroom and what to consider before you do so.

    What are the benefits of using tablets in class?

    1. Facilitating engagement

    With good direction from the teacher, tablets can emulate natural social interaction and interactivity. They can also offer problem-solving activities, set achievable goals and provide instant feedback.

    Moreover, when young learners are truly engaged in an activity, it may be perceived as effortless - and they learn and use their second language (L2) without even realizing it. 

    2. Introducing authenticity and autonomy

    In terms of content, tablets allow us to bring the real world into the classroom at the tap of a screen. We can provide learners with authentic materials via level-and-age-appropriate videos and real-life communication. As well as interaction with other teachers and learners through teams or by using a secure app such as Stars private messaging

    Tablets also promote learner autonomy. They are easy to use, allowing us to take a step back and let our students work at their own pace, being on stand-by as a facilitator when students require help or a little push in the right direction.

    3. Promoting creativity, communication and inclusion

    Nearly all tablets have a webcam and voice recorder, which means that learner-generated content can be created easily - even without dedicated software. 

    You can have your students make their own vlogs (video diaries), ebooks, comics, cartoons and movie trailers. All you need to do is to install apps such as Book Creator or this series of apps specifically designed for very young learners from Duck Duck Moose. While these apps have been created for 'fluent-speaker' classrooms, they can easily be adapted to an ELT context.

    Tablets also promote communication. This can help improve students' L2 oral skills at any level, when the teacher is there to support and guide them.

    One of the greatest advantages of a tablet as opposed to a computer is that anyone can use one and they are much more portable. 

    For students with special educational needs, tablets can be an essential learning tool and they can also be used by students with low-level motor skills, such as very young learners. Similarly, tablets can work really well with multi-level classes, as they allow you to offer differentiated materials, activities and support where necessary.

    4. Enabling online assessment 

    Tablets can also facilitate interactive online exams or help measure progress. Tests such as 'English Benchmark - Young Learners' are designed with primary learners in mind, to be taken anytime, anywhere. Its game-like format engages students and takes the fear out of being assessed. It also provides instant feedback to the teacher with informative reports and advice for future study. 

    5. Building relationships with caregivers

    Finally, as with any online content, tablets allow you to connect with our learners outside the classroom. You can quickly send links to classwork and feedback to the children's caregivers, fostering a positive relationship and a greater interest in their child's progress and learning. 

    Tips for using tablets in class

    Before implementing the use of tablets in your classroom, there are some things you should consider. Here are some useful tips that will help you gain the maximum benefit from tablets.


    • Decide what you are going to use the tablets for and when. Are you going to allow students to use the tablets for all parts of the lesson or only for specific activities? This may depend on the number of tablets you have available.
    • Use technology to improve an activity or design new activities that would not be possible without the tech, rather than using it to carry on as normal. Think about when a tablet will help learners do something they wouldn't be able to do without one, e.g., make a video or create and share a piece of writing with the whole class.
    • Think about using tablets for creation rather than consumption. Your students can (and probably do) spend a fair amount of time consuming videos in their free time. Whether they do this in English or not is another story, but in the classroom, students should use the language as much as possible (see the next point).
    • Use the tablets for collaborative tasks that require social interaction and communication. It's unlikely that you will have one tablet per student. Make the most of this limitation by having students work in pairs or small groups. Students can use their own devices individually outside the classroom.
    • Try to incorporate tablets into regular classroom activities and interactions. Avoid making them a "reward" or just for "games". Even if games are part of your planned tablet usage, make it clear that students are playing them in order to learn English. Encourage students to think of the tablet as a tool to help them on their learning journey.

    General tips

    • Try out any apps or widgets before asking students to use them. If necessary, make or find a step-by-step tutorial to help students use an app. There's nothing worse than having a class of twenty-five students all raising their hands at the same time because they don't know where to start.
    • Have clear rules and guidelines for tablet use. Educate students about using the equipment responsibly. Do this before you hand out tablets the first time.
    • Provide students and parents with a list of recommended apps to continue their home learning. Whether you have a class set of tablets or are using BYOD (Bring Your Own Device), many students will have access to a tablet or mobile phone at home, which they can use for further practice. Students will likely be motivated to continue playing games at home and may wish to show their parents and friends any content they've created in class.


    • Consider the hardware and technical requirements. Do you need a Wi-Fi connection? How many devices will you have? Which apps and programs do you want to use? 
    • Ensure the features and apps you plan to use suit the age group you're teaching. Do some research, and if possible, choose apps designed for educators, avoiding freebie apps that may contain advertising. Block any websites you think unsuitable and install a search engine with child-friendly filters.
    • Set the language of the devices to English. Even if your students are very young, they'll pick up useful language and will be more inclined to use English as they are using the tablet.
    • Decide where you will keep the tablets and how they will be maintained. How often and where will they be charged? 
    • Think about how you can flexibly set up your classroom to incorporate collaborative tablet use. Move tables together to make group work easier. Create workstations or even have cushions or bean bags in a corner of the classroom.

    Using tablets to assess student progress with Benchmark

    With the right software, tablets can allow us to conduct formative assessments through immediate feedback and learning analytics. 

    We have developed our own English-language test for children aged 6 to 13 in an app designed specifically for tablet use. This fun, game-like test is highly motivating and assesses all four skills in a relaxed environment, removing the stress of traditional exams. It also allows you to see where each learner needs more improvement, providing recommendations on what to teach next and suggested activities in selected Pearson courseware.

    Find out more information about the English Benchmark test.

  • a group of young business people chatting toether

    Unconscious bias in the workplace: Overcoming DEI barriers through language learning

    By Pearson Languages

    Reading time: 7.5 minutes

    Unconscious bias: it's a quiet murmur in the corridors of our workplaces that can grow into a loud echo, shaping decisions and team dynamics in ways that may go unnoticed. In our collective quest for diversity, equity and inclusion (DEI), recognizing and tackling these biases is not just important—it's essential.

    By embarking on this path, we create workplaces where everyone feels valued and heard. If you're an HR professional, a leader, or a diversity consultant, it’s essential to always keep this in mind in every aspect of the workplace. Today, let's explore how language learning can be a valuable ally in breaking down the barriers created by unconscious bias.