As technologies and broadband become more widely available and as the focus on integrating technology into learning increases, interest in Flipped Learning will continue to grow.
In recognition of this interest, the Flipped Learning Network, with the support of Pearson and researchers at George Mason University, undertook a comprehensive review of relevant research in two phases.
Transforming Instruction Time
In the Flipped Learning model, some or most of direct instruction is delivered outside the group learning space using video or other modes of delivery. Class time is then available for students to engage in hands-on learning, collaborate with their peers and evaluate their progress and for teachers to provide one-on-one assistance, guidance and inspiration. The shift is from a teacher-centered classroom to a student-centered learning environment.
Four Pillars of FLIP
Flipped classrooms allow for a variety of learning modes; educators often physically rearrange their learning space to accommodate the lesson or unit, which might involve group work or independent study. They create Flexible Environments in which students choose when and where they learn. Furthermore, educators who flip their classes are flexible in their expectations of student timelines for learning and how students are assessed.
In the traditional teacher-centered model, the teacher is the main source of information. In the Flipped Learning model, there is a deliberate shift from a teacher-centered classroom to a student-centered approach, where in-class time is meant for exploring topics in greater depth and creating richer learning opportunities through various student-centered pedagogies. As a result, students are actively involved in knowledge formation through opportunities to participate in and evaluate their learning in a manner that is personally meaningful.
Flipped educators continually think about how they can use the Flipped Learning model to help students gain conceptual understanding, as well as procedural fluency. They evaluate what they need to teach and what materials students should explore on their own. Educators use Intentional Content to maximize classroom time in order to adopt various methods of instruction such as active learning strategies, peer instruction, problem-based learning, or mastery or Socratic methods, depending on grade level and subject matter.
The role of Professional Educators is even more important, and often more demanding, in a flipped classroom than in a traditional one. During class time, teachers continually observe their students, providing them with feedback relevant in the moment, and assessing their work. Professional educators are reflective in their practice, connect with each other to improve their trade, accept constructive criticism, and tolerate controlled classroom chaos. While Professional Educators remain very important, they take on less visibly prominent roles in the flipped classroom.
Not only do many more teachers report successfully implementing the Flipped Learning model, but the initial empirical evidence is promising. In several of these studies the Flipped Learning model is associated with increased student learning and positive perceptions of the unique elements, such as presentation of material outside of class and increase in active learning activities.