Computer Graphics And Virtual Environments: From Realism to Real-Time, 1st edition

  • Mel Slater
  • Yiorgos Chrysanthou
  • Anthony Steed

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Overview

This book provides a clear tutorial guide to essential concepts in computer graphics, including state-of-the-art techniques and novel applications such as virtual reality and other forms of 3D interaction. Providing a rich source of examples with which to experiment, and encouraging the development of programming skills, this book is ideal for anyone interested in the study of computer graphics.

Table of contents

PART 1 INTRODUCTION: PERCEPTION, LIGHT, COLOUR AND MATH1 Introduction: A Phantom World of Projections
Introduction
Scope
Modeling and Virtual Environments
Realism and Real-Time
Presence and Immersion
How Virtual Environments Work
Summary2 Mathematics for Virtual Environments
Introduction
Dimension
Positions and Directions: Points and Vectors
Flatness Preserving Transformations
Quaternians
Summary
3 Lighting - the Radiance Equation
Lighting - The Fundamental Problem for Computer Graphics
Light
Simplifying Assumptions
Radiance
Reflectance
The Radiance Equation
Solutions of the Radiance Equation
Visibility
Summary
4 Color and The Human Response to Light
Introduction: Colour as Spectral Distributions
A Simple Model for the Visual System
A Simple Model for an Emitter System
Generating Perceivable Colors
The CIE-RGB Color Matching Functions
CIE-RGB Chromaticity Space
CIE-XYZ Chromaticity Space
Some Characteristics of CRT Displays
Converting between RGB and XYZ Color Spaces
Color Gamuts and Undisplayable Colors
Summary: Putting it All Together
PART 2 FROM REALISM TO REAL- TIME
5 A Painting Metaphor for Computer Graphics
Introduction - The Painting Metaphor
Simulating the Painting Metaphor
Major Concepts of GraphicsSummary
6 Local Illumination and Ray Tracing
Introduction
Diffuse Reflection and Lambert's Law
Computing Local Diffuse Reflection
A Simple Model for Local Specular Reflection
Rendering the Local Illumination Model with Ray Casting
Introduction to Recursive Ray Tracing
Recursive Ray Tracing Including Transparent Objects
Some Details of the Ray Tracing Algorithm
Illumination in OpenGL
Illumination in VRML97
Summary
7 Generalizing the Camera
Introduction
Mapping from WC to the UVN Viewing Coordinate System
Using a General Camera in Ray Tracing
VRML97 Examples
Summary
8 Constructing a Scene
Introduction
Polygons and Planes
Polyhedra
The Scene Hierarchy
Using Open GL
Using VRML97
Summary
References
Appendix 8.1 - C Specification of the Winged Edge Data Structure
9 Projection: Completing the Camera Model
Introduction
Full Camera Specification
Projection
A Composite Matrix
Computing the View Matrix T
Putting It All Together
Combining View Implementation with the Scene Graph
Viewing in OpenGL
Creating 3D Stereo Views
Summary
Appendix 9.1 Derivation of Matrix in eq 9.8
Appendix 9.2 OpenGL Rendering of an Object Hierarchy
10 Clipping Polygons
Introduction
The Sutherland-Hodgman Algorithm (2D)
Clipping Polygons - Weiler-Atherton Algorithm
Clipping Polygons in 3D
Summary
11 Visibility Determination
Introduction
Back-face Elimination
List Priority Algorithms
Binary Space Partition Trees
Summary
12 Rendering Polygons
Introduction
Polygon Rasterization
Summary
13 Image Space Rendering and Texturing
Introduction
The Z-buffer Visibility Algorithm
Smooth Shading
TexturingVRML97 Examples
Summary
PART 3 FROM REAL - TIME TO REALISM14 Shadows: Towards Real-time Realism
Introduction
Shadow UmbrasShadow PenumbrasSummary
15 An Introduction to Radiosity
Introduction
Form Factors: Energy Between Two Patches
The Radiosity Equations
Computing the Form-Factors
The Progressive Refinement Method
MeshingRendering
Summary
16 Faster Ray Tracing
Introduction
Intersection Calculations
Bounding Volumes and Hierarchies
Uniform Space Subdivision
Non-Uniform Space SubdivisionRay Coherence Methods
Summary
17 Clipping and Rendering Lines
Introduction
Clipping Line Segments
Rasterisation of Line Segments
Summary
PART 4 SOLIDS, CURVES AND SURFACES18 Constructive Solid Geometry
Introduction
Quadric Surfaces
Ray Classification and Combination
Summary
19 Introduction to Computer Aided Geometrical Design
Introduction
Polynomials and Blossoms
Blossoms and Bezier Curves
Bezier Curves and the Bernstein Basis
Degree Raising Bezier Curves
Joining Curves Together: Continuity
B-Spline Curves
B-Spline Basis Functions
Introduction to Surfaces
Parametric Surfaces
Triangular Bezier Patches
Cubic B-Spline Interpolation
Evaluating Polynomials
SummaryPART 5 BYNAMICS AND INTERACTIOIN IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS20 Human Dynamics in a Virtual World
Introduction
Virtual Reality Model
Simulation of Body
Interacting with the Virtual Body
Object Pair Collision Detection
General Collision Detection
A Note on VRML
Summary
21 Real-Time Interaction
Introduction
Desktop Interaction Devices
Selection
Manipulation
Locomotion
Avoiding Modality in the Interface
C Examples
VRML Examples
Summary
Questions
References
PART 6 FROM REALISM TO REAL - TIME II22 A Survey of Global Illumination
Introduction
Ray Tracing Methods
Distributed Ray TracingPath TracingIntegrating Radiosity and Ray Tracing
Photon Tracing
Summary
23 Advanced Real-Time Rendering for Virtual Environments
IntroductionVisibility Processing
Multiresolution Representations
Image Based RenderingLight Fields
Full Screen Anti-aliasingVRML Examples
Summary24 Introduction to VRML
Introduction
VRML as Scene Description
VRML as Animation Description
VRML as Interactive Experience
Summary
References
Index

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Published by Pearson (October 31st 2001) - Copyright © 2002