I: GETTING STARTED.
1. The Big Picture.
Introduction. A Framework for Discussion. Applications in 1990s and Beyond. Classification of Applications. Object-Oriented Client/Server Internet Applications. Promises and Pitfalls. What Is an Object-Oriented Client/Server Internet Environment? Concepts. What Is Middleware? Functional View of Middleware. Middleware Logical Components (Layers) and Examples. Why This Book? State of the Practice: General Observations. State of the Market: General Observations. State of the Art: General Trends. Summary. A Case Study. Problems and Exercises. Additional Information. References.
2: Information-Technology Building Blocks.
Introduction. Client/Server Fundamentals. Definitions. Client/Server as a Special Case of Distributed Computing. IT Building Blocks-The C/S View. Client/Server Processes-The Applications. Middleware. Network Services. Local Software. Operating Systems. Computing Hardware. Application Architectures and Sample Configurations. Overview. Single-Physical-Tiered Architectures. Two-Physical-Tiered Architecture Overview. Three-Physical-Tiered Architecture Overview. Sample Configurations. Choosing Number of Tiers. IT Building Blocks-A Second Look. Network Services. Middleware Layers-A Closer Look. Applications. State of the Practice: Typical Examples. Overview. Client Examples. Server Examples. State of the Market: Commercial Products. State of the Art: Standards and Trends. Summary. Case Study: IT Building Blocks for XYZCorp. Problems and Exercises. Additional Information. References.
II. UNDERSTANDING THE MIDDLEWARE.
3. Basic C/S Middleware and OSF DCE.
Introduction. Basic C/S Middleware and Network Operating Systems. Remote-Procedure Call (RPC). The RPC Paradigm. RPC Analysis. Strengths and Weaknesses of RPC. Remote-Data Access (RDA). RDA Paradigm. RDA Analysis. Strengths and Weaknesses of RDA. Message-Oriented Middleware (MOM). Queued-Message-Processing (QMP) Paradigm. QMP Analysis. Strengths and Weaknesses. Other Paradigms. Basic Management and Support Services. Security. Fault (Failure) Management. Naming and Dictionary Services. Performance. Open Software Foundation's Distributed Computing Environment (DCE). Overview. OSF/DCE Services. DCE Example. DCE Summary and Trends. State of the Practice: Short Case Studies. State of the Market: Products. State of the Art: Standards. Summary. Case Study: XYZCorp Chooses a Network Operating System. Problems and Exercises. Additional Information. References.
4. Internet and World Wide Web.
Introduction. Internet and Intranets: A Quick Overview. Overview of World Wide Web. Brief History. World Wide Web Middleware. A Simple Example. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Web Browsers. Java and Java Applets. What Is Java and Why Is It So Hot? What Is HotJava? What Is a Java Applet? Java Details. Web Sites and Web Servers. Web Gateways: Accessing Non-Web Information. Web Gateway Overview. Common Gateway Interface (CGI). Server-Side Includes (SSI). Gateway as a Standalone Server. Mobile Code Systems (Java Gateways). State of the Practice: Web Middleware for Enterprise Use. Overview. Relational Gateways for Web. Web Access to Legacy Information. State of the Market. State of the Art: Integrating Web with Objects and AI. Summary. Case Study: Intranet and Web for XYZCorp. Problems and Exercises. Additional Information. References.
5. Distributed-Data Management and Remote SQL Middleware.
Introduction. Concepts and Definitions. Review of Basic Concepts. Distributed-Data Access Management: What and Why. Distributed-Data Model. Distributed File Processing. Single-Site Remote-Database Access: The Simple SQL Middleware. Overview. SQL Clients. SQL Servers. Distributed-Query Processing and Distributed-Database Servers. Overview. Heterogeneous and Federated Databases.in Network Environments. Remote-Data and Distributed-Database Standards: ODBC, DRDA, and ISO RDA. Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) API. Other SQL API Standards. Distributed-Relational-Database Architecture (DRDA): An Exchange Protocol. ISO RDA. Web Access to Relational Databases. Overview. Technical and Architectural Considerations. Observations and Comments. State of the Practice: Examples. State of the Market: SQL Middleware and Gateways. SQL Middleware for Distributed-Data Access. SQL Gateways. State of the Art: Object-Oriented Multidatabase Systems. Summary. Case Study: XYZCorp Provides Web Access to Corporate Data. Problems and Exercises. Additional Information. References.
6. Client/Server Transaction Processing.
Introduction. Review of Transaction Concepts. The ACID Properties. Transaction Models. Transaction Managers. Distributed-Transaction Processing Concepts. Distributed ACID. Distributed-Transaction Models. Distributed-Transaction Managers: The TP-Heavy Approach. Standards for Distributed-Transaction Processing. Data-Replication Servers: Another Approach to Updating. Replicated Data. Overview. Definitions and Technical Considerations. General Architecture of Replication Servers. Framework for Analyzing/Selecting Data-Replication Servers. Two-Phase Commit versus Data-Replication Servers. Two-Phase Commit. Trade-offs Between Two-Phase Commit and Replication Servers. C/S Transaction Processing: TP-Less, TP-Lite, TP-Heavy. TP-Less. TP-Lite. TP-Heavy. Trade-offs Between TP-Lite and TP-Heavy. Distributed-Data and Transaction Management: A Consolidation. Global Data Definition and Translation Challenges. Global Directory Allocation (Name Services) Challenges. Distributed-File Processing Challenges. Distributed-Query Processing Challenges. Distributed-Transaction Processing Challenges. A Distributed-Data and Transaction Management Evaluation Framework. Example of an Open Distributed-Transaction Processor: Encina. Overview. Encina Toolkit Executive. Encina Toolkit Server Core. Encina Extended TP Services. Encina Summary and Trends. State of the Practice: Examples and Case Studies. State of the Market. State of the Art: Object Orientation in Transaction Management. Summary. Case Study: XYZCorp Uses Client/Server Transaction Processing. Problems and Exercises. Additional Information. References.
7. Distributed Objects (CORBA and OLE/ActiveX)
Introduction. Objects in Distributed Systems. Concepts. Object Frameworks, Business Objects, and Components. Distributed Objects for Enterprisewide Applications. Interfaces and Interface Definition Language. Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). Object-Management Architecture. Basic CORBA Concepts. Object-Request Broker Structure. Object Adapters. Using CORBA. CORBA 2.0 Overview. ORB 2.0 Features. CORBA 2.0 Object Services. CORBA 2.0 Common Facilities. CORBA 2.0 Inter-ORB Architecture. Bridges Between ORBs (Half and Full Bridges). CORBA Summary. Compound-Document Middleware: OLE and OpenDoc. Overview. Microsoft's Object Linking and Embedding (OLE). OpenDoc. Compound Document Middleware Summary and Trends. ActiveX-Going Beyond OLE. Overview. DCOM (Distributed Component Object Model) as an ORB. Web Browsers as Containers of ActiveX Components. ActiveX Controls-Building Downloadable Web-based Components. ActiveX Server. General Observations and Comments. State of the Practice: Examples. State of the Market: Commercial Products. State of the Art: ANSA and ISO ODP. ANSA Consortium. ISO ODP (Open Distributed Processing). Summary. Case Study: XYZCorp Investigates Distributed-Object Technologies. Problems and Exercises. Additional Information. References. Appendix 7A: A Detailed CORBA Example. Overview. Create CORBA Definitions. Build the Server. Build a Client (Static Invocation). Build a Client (Dynamic Invocation).
8. Mobile Computing, Groupware, Multimedia, and Legacy Data Access Middleware.
Introduction. Mobile Computing Applications. Overview of Mobile Computing Environments. Mobile Computing Application Issues. Middleware for Mobile Computing Applications. State of the Art, Market, and Practice. Distributed-Multimedia Applications. Overview. Middleware for Distributed-Multimedia Applications. State of the Practice, Market, and Art. Middleware for Collaboration: Groupware and Workflows.Overview. Groupware and Lotus Notes. Workflow. State of the Practice, Market, and Art. Legacy Access/Integration Middleware. Overview. Screen Scrapers. Database Gateways. Application Gateways. Object Wrappers-A Step Toward Integration. Integration Gateways-The Super Wrappers. Summary. Case Study: XYZCorp Investigates Emerging Technologies. Problems and Exercises. Additional Information. References.
9. Putting the Pieces Together-A Synthesis.
Introduction. Putting The Pieces Together-IT Infrastructure. Overview. Analysis of Infrastructure Requirements. IT Infrastructure Architecture. Implementation Considerations. IBM's Open Distributed Computing Blueprint-Example of an Infrastructure. Overview. The Distributed System Services. Distributed Resource Management. Other Open Distributed Computing Services. Summary of IBM's Open Distributed Computing (ODC). Middleware State of the Practice. Middleware State of the Market. State of the Art: General Trends. Concluding Comments. Case Study: XYZCorp Synthesis of IT Infrastructure Architecture. Problems and Exercises. Additional Information. References.
III. TUTORIALS ON SPECIAL TOPICS.
10. Object-Oriented Concepts and Technologies-A Tutorial.
Introduction. Basic Object Concepts. Object: The Basic Building Block. Messages: Activating Objects. Classes. Inheritance. Object Based versus Object Orientation. Abstraction. Encapsulation (Information Hiding). Polymorphism. Object-Oriented User Interfaces. Object-Oriented Design and Programming. Object-Oriented Databases. State of the Practice: General Observations. Summary. Case Study: XYZCorp Investigates OO. Additional Information. References.
11. Network Technologies and Architecture-A Tutorial.
Introduction. Enterprise Network Concepts. Typical Existing Networks. Local-Area Networks. Metropolitan-Area Networks-The Large LANs. Typical Wide-Area Networks. Network Architectures and the OSI Reference Model. Overview. Network Interconnectivity. Emerging Communication Technologies. Overview. Interrelationships among Emerging Technologies. Foundations of Emerging Technologies. SONET (Synchronous Optical Network). Fast Packet-Switching Networks ("Fast Relays"). Frame Relay. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode). Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS). Broadband ISDN (BISDN). Mobile Communications (Cellular Networks and Wireless LANs/WANs). Summary of Emerging Technologies. Sample Network Architectures (TCP/IP, SNA, LAN NOSs). Overview. Transmission-Control Program/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Stack. IBM's System Network Architecture (SNA). LAN Network Stacks and Network Operating Systems. Analysis and Comparison of Network Stacks. Network Interconnectivity (Routers, Bridges, Gateways). Bridges. Routers and Firewalls. Network Gateways. State of the Practice: Enterprise Network Examples. State of the Market: General Observations. State of the Art. Summary. Case Study: XYZCorp Establishes a Network Architecture. Additional Information. References.