# Reading Statistics and Research, 6th edition

• Schuyler W. Huck

6th edition

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## Overview

Employing a non-intimidating writing style that emphasizes concepts rather than formulas, this uniquely welcoming text shows consumers of research how to read, understand, and critically evaluate the statistical information and research results contained in technical research reports. Some key topics covered in this thoroughly revised text include: descriptive statistics, correlation, reliability and validity, estimation, h hypothesis testing, t-tests, ANOVA, ANCOVA, regression, multivariate analysis, factor analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM). A number of mini-topics related to research and statistics are also discussed, such as the geometric mean, Tau-b correlation, Guttman split-half reliability, sensitivity, specificity, and the Sobel test. Additionally, the sixth edition also includes over 488 new excerpts (tables, figures, passages of text) taken from current research reports. Written specifically for students in non-thesis Master’s Programs but also perfectly suitable for students in upper-level undergraduate statistics courses, doctoral students who must conduct dissertation research, and independent researchers who want a better handle on how to decipher and critique statistically-based research reports.

Thoroughly updated and revised to reflect advances in the field, Reading Statistics and Research, Sixth Edition gives consumers of research exactly what they are seeking in this caliber of text, that being the knowledge necessary to better understand research and statistics, and the confidence and ability to ultimately decipher and critique research reports on their own.

Brief Contents

1          The Typical Format of a Journal Article    X

2          Descriptive Statistics: The Univariate Case    XX

3          Bivariate Correlation    XX

4          Reliability and Validity    XX

5          Foundations of Inferential Statistics    XX

6          Estimation    XXX

7          Hypothesis Testing   XXX

8          Effect Size, Power, CIs, and Bonferroni   XXX

9          Statistical Inferences Concerning Bivariate Correlation Coefficients    XXX

10          Inferences Concerning One or Two Means    XXX

11          Tests on Three or More Means Using a One-Way ANOVA    XXX

12          Post Hoc and Planned Comparisons    XXX

13          Two-Way Analyses of Variance    XXX

14          Analyses of Variance with Repeated Measures    XXX

15          The Analysis of Covariance    XXX

16          Bivariate, Multiple, and Logistic Regression    XXX

17          Inferences on Percentages, Proportions, and Frequencies    XXX

18          Statistical Tests on Ranks (Nonparametric Tests)    XXX

19          Multivariate Tests on Means    XXX

20          Factor Analysis    XXX

21          Structural Equation Modeling     XXX

Epilogue    XXX

Contents

Preface    XXX

1    The Typical Format of a Journal Article    XXX

Abstract   XXX

Introduction    XXX

Method   XXX

Results   XXX

Discussion   XXX

References    XXX

Notes    XXX

Review Terms   XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website   XXX

2    Descriptive Statistics: The Univariate Case    XXX

Picture Techniques    XXX

Distributional Shape   XXX

Measures of Central Tendency    XXX

Measures of Variability    XXX

Standard Scores    XXX

A Few Cautions    XXX

Review Terms    XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website    XXX

3    Bivariate Correlation    XXX

The Key Concept behind Correlation: Relationship    XXX

Scatter Diagrams    XXX

The Correlation Coefficient    XXX

The Correlation Matrix   XXX

Different Kinds of Correlational Procedures   XXX

Review Terms    XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website   XXX

4    Reliability and Validity   XXX

Reliability    XXX

Validity    XXX

Review Terms    XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website   XXX

5    Foundations of Inferential Statistics    XXX

Statistical Inference    XXX

The Concepts of Statistic and Parameter    XXX

Types of Samples    XXX

The Problems of Low Response Rates, Refusals to Participate, and Attrition   XXX

A Few Warnings    XXX

Review Terms    XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website    XXX

6    Estimation   XXX

Interval Estimation    XXX

Point Estimation    XXX

Warnings Concerning Interval and Point Estimation    XXX

Review Terms    XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website    XXX

7    Hypothesis Testing    XXX

An Ordered List of the Six Steps    XXX

A Detailed Look at Each of the Six Steps   XXX

Results That Are Highly Significant and Near Misses    XXX

A Few Cautions    XXX

Review Terms   XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website    XXX

8    Effect Size, Power, CIs, and Bonferroni    XXX

The Seven-Step Version of Hypothesis Testing: Estimating Effect Size    XXX

The Nine-Step Version of Hypothesis Testing: Power Analyses

Hypothesis Testing Using Confidence Intervals   XXX

Adjusting for an Inflated Type I Error Rate    XXX

A Few Cautions    XXX

Review Terms    XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website    XXX

9   Statistical Inferences Concerning Bivariate Correlation Coefficients    XXX

Statistical Tests Involving a Single Correlation Coefficient    XXX

Tests on Many Correlation Coefficients (Each of Which Is Treated Separately)    XXX

Tests of Reliability and Validity Coefficients    XXX

Statistically Comparing Two Correlation Coefficients    XXX

The Use of Confidence Intervals around Correlation Coefficients    XXX

Cautions    XXX

Review Terms    XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website   XXX

10    Inferences Concerning One or Two Means    XXX

Inferences Concerning a Single Mean    XXX

Inferences Concerning Two Means    XXX

Multiple Dependent Variables    XXX

Effect Size Assessment and Power Analyses   XXX

Underlying Assumptions   XXX

Review Terms    XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website   XXX

11    Tests on Three or More Means Using a One-Way ANOVA    XXX

The Purpose of a One-Way ANOVA   XXX

The Distinction between a One-Way ANOVA and Other Kinds of ANOVA    XXX

The One-Way ANOVA’s Null and Alternative Hypotheses    XXX

Presentation of Results    XXX

Assumptions of a One-Way ANOVA    XXX

Statistical Significance versus Practical Significance    XXX

Cautions    XXX

A Final Comment    XXX

Review Terms   XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website    XXX

12    Post Hoc and Planned Comparisons    XXX

Post Hoc Comparisons    XXX

Planned Comparisons    XXX

Review Terms    XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website    XXX

13    Two-Way Analyses of Variance    XXX

Similarities between One-Way and Two-Way ANOVAs   XXX

The Structure of a Two-Way ANOVA   XXX

Three Research Questions    XXX

The Three Null Hypotheses (and Three Alternative Hypotheses)   XXX

Presentation of Results    XXX

Follow-Up Tests   XXX

Planned Comparisons    XXX

Assumptions Associated with a Two-Way ANOVA    XXX

Estimating Effect Size and Conducting Power Analyses in Two-Way ANOVAs    XXX

The Inflated Type I Error Rate in Factorial ANOVAs   XXX

A Few Warnings Concerning Two-Way ANOVAs   XXX

Review Terms    XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website    XXX

14    Analyses of Variance with Repeated Measures   XXX

One-Way Repeated Measures ANOVAs    XXX

Two-Way Repeated Measures ANOVAs   XXX

Two-Way Mixed ANOVAs    XXX

Review Terms    XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website    XXX

15    The Analysis of Covariance    XXX

The Three Different Variables Involved in Any ANCOVA Study    XXX

The Covariate’s Role   XXX

Null Hypotheses    XXX

The Focus, Number, and Quality of the Covariate Variable(s)    XXX

Presentation of Results    XXX

Assumptions   XXX

ANCOVA When Comparison Groups Are Not Formed Randomly   XXX

Related Issues   XXX

A Few Warnings    XXX

Review Terms    XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website    XXX

16    Bivariate, Multiple, and Logistic Regression    XXX

Bivariate Regression    XXX

Multiple Regression    XXX

Logistic Regression    XXX

Review Terms    XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website    XXX

17    Inferences on Percentages, Proportions, and Frequencies    XXX

The Sign Test    XXX

The Binomial Test    XXX

Fisher’s Exact Test    XXX

Chi-Square Tests: An Introduction    XXX

Three Main Types of Chi-Square Tests    XXX

Issues Related to Chi-Square Tests    XXX

McNemar’s Chi-Square    XXX

The Cochran Q Test    XXX

The Use of z-Tests When Dealing with Proportions    XXX

A Few Final Thoughts    XXX

Review Terms    XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website    XXX

18    Statistical Tests on Ranks (Nonparametric Tests)    XXX

Obtaining Ranked Data    XXX

Reasons for Converting Scores on a Continuous Variable into Ranks    XXX

The Median Test    XXX

The Mann-Whitney U Test    XXX

The Kruskal-Wallis H Test    XXX

The Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks Test    XXX

Friedman’s Two-Way Analysis of Variance of Ranks    XXX

Large-Sample Versions of the Tests on Ranks    XXX

Ties    XXX

The Relative Power of Nonparametric Tests    XXX

Review Terms    XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website    XXX

19    Multivariate Tests on Means    XXX

The Versatility of Multivariate Tests    XXX

The Multivariate Null Hypothesis    XXX

Testing the Multivariate Null Hypothesis    XXX

Assumptions    XXX

Statistical Significance and Practical Significance

Post Hoc Investigations     XXX

Review Terms    XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website    XXX

20    Factor Analysis     XXX

The Goal (and Basic Logic) or Factor Analysis     XXX

The Multivariate Null Hypothesis     XXX

The Three Main Uses of Factor Analysis     XXX

Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis     XXX

Exploratory Factor Analysis     XXX

Confirmatory Factor Analysis     XXX

Assumptions     XXX

Review Terms     XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website     XXX

20    Structural Equation Modeling     XXX

Key Terms and Concepts of Structural Equation Modeling     XXX

Elements in a Study Using Structural Equation Modeling     XXX

Other Uses of SEM     XXX

Issues and Considerations     XXX

Review Terms     XXX

The Best Items in the Companion Website     XXX

Epilogue     XXX

Review Questions     XXX