# Elementary Surveying: An Introduction to Geomatics, 15th edition

Published by Pearson (January 24, 2017) © 2018

**Charles D. Ghilani**Pennsylvania State University

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## Mastering

- Activate learning for future scientists
- Tailor your course to fit your needs
- Support students with guided practice

## Extras

**About the Book**

**Students learn the basic concepts and practical materials in each of the areas of modern surveying practice.****Emphasize the Theory of Errors in Surveying Work.**Common errors and mistakes related to the topic covered are listed at the end of each chapter to remind students to exercise caution in all their work.**Practical suggestions from the authors’ years of experience**are interjected throughout the text.**Provides an up-to-date presentation of surveying equipment and procedures**, as the instruments for making angle and distance observations.- Images of instruments and field book pages that match today’s instruments.
- Increased discussions on the changes in reference systems.
- Discussion on planning a ground-based laser-scanning survey.
- Discussion on the landxml format to exchange mapping files.
- Discussion on point codes in field-to-finish surveying.
- Coverage on errors present in electronic distance measurements.
- Introduction to mobile mapping systems.
**Several sections on machine control, localization of GPS surveys, and construction staking using GPS**are included.**Coverage of both automatic and digital levels for elevation determination**features in the text.

**Robust pedagogical hallmarks support both the student and instructor.**

**More than 400 figures and illustrations**help clarify discussions.**Numerous worked example problems**illustrate computational procedures.**UPDATED! Many of the 1000 end-of-chapter problems**have been rewritten.**Solutions to Selected Problems**are available in an Appendix for students to check their work.**The Companion Website (**www.pearsonhighered.com/ghilani)contains the following resources**Updated**versions of Stats, Wolfpack, and Matrix- Mathcad® worksheets and Excel® spreadsheets
- The Mercator, Albers Equal Area, Oblique Stereographic, and Oblique Mercator map projections are included to give students extra experience with map projections.
- Short videos presenting the solution of selected example problems

**Also available with Pearson Mastering Engineering**

Mastering Engineering is an online homework, tutorial, and assessment program designed to work with this text to engage students and improve results. Interactive, self-paced tutorials provide individualized coaching to help students stay on track. With a wide range of activities available, students can actively learn, understand, and retain even the most difficult concepts. The text and Mastering Engineering work together to guide students through engineering concepts with a multi-step approach to problems.

**Mastering Engineering tutorial homework problems**are designed to emulate the instructor’s office-hour environment. Tutorials guide students through engineering concepts in multi-step problems that provide feedback specific to their errors, along with optional hints for breaking down the problems into smaller steps.- Wrong-answer feedback, personalized for each student, responds to a wide variety of common wrong answers with immediate feedback specific to their error.
- The Optional Hints feature provides hints of two types. Declarative hints give advice on how to approach the problem, while Socratic hints break down a problem into smaller sub-problems.
- Homework problems support the problem-solving techniques in the text.
**Video Solutions**offer step-by-step solution walkthroughs of representative homework problems from each section of the text.

**Mastering gradebook and diagnostic tools**capture the step-by-step work of every student–including wrong answers submitted, hints requested, and time taken at every step of every problem–providing insight into the most common misconceptions among students.- The Gradebook records all scores for automatically graded assignments. Struggling students and challenging assignments are highlighted in shades of red, giving instructors an at-a-glance view of potential hurdles in the course.
- Gradebook Diagnostic Charts provide unique insight into class and student performance. With a single click, a selection of charts summarizes key performance measures such as item difficulty, time on task, and grade distribution.
- The Student Data view, also available with a single click, provides quick statistics on how the class compares to the national results. Wrong-answer summaries give unique insight into students’ misconceptions and facilitate just-in-time teaching adjustments.

**Learning Outcomes Summaries**track student- or class-level performance for both publisher- and instructor-provided learning outcomes. All assignable Mastering Engineering content has been tagged to ABET Learning Outcomes A, E, & K. Mastering also enables instructors to add their own learning outcomes and associate those with Mastering Engineering content.**Learning Catalytics**helps generate class discussion, customize lectures, and promote peer-to-peer learning with real-time analytics. As a student response tool, Learning Catalytics uses students’ smartphones, tablets, or laptops to engage them in more interactive tasks and thinking.^{™}- Help your students develop critical thinking skills.
- Monitor responses to find out where your students are struggling.
- Rely on real-time data to adjust your teaching strategy.
- Automatically group students for discussion, teamwork, and peer-to-peer learning.

**New within the Book**

**UPDATED! Many of the 1000 end-of-chapter problems**have been rewritten.**Over nine and a half hours of new video providing enhanced instruction**for material now featured in Chapters 3, 4, 6, and 13–18.**Discussion and coverage**of new material, including:- Unmanned aerial systems (UAS).
- The importance of metadata.
- The Gravity for Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) project.
- How to use GNSS static survey methods to obtain accurate orthometric heights in a project.
- The effect on the accuracy of baseline lengths in a GNSS survey caused by centering errors of the receiver.
- Computations using root mean square error stode fine map accuracy.
- The planned vertical datum for the North American continent involving Canada, Mexico, and the United States.
- Discussion on the planned new horizontal and vertical datums.
- The ground versus grid problem with map projections including low-distortion projections and use of project factors.
- The Landsat 8 imagery.
**Chapters on GNSS surveys**now include discussions on the inaccuracies of directions obtained from a GNSS survey along with the effect of centering errors on horizontal positioning.**Problem sets**have been revised.

**Content Updates**

**Chapter 17**introduces the reader to unmanned systems.**Chapter 18**includes a section on the importance of metadata.**Chapter 20**discusses mapping the ground versus grid problem, including subsections on low- distortion projections and single project factor use.

**Also available with Mastering Engineering**

Mastering™ Engineeringis an online homework, tutorial, and assessment program designed to work with this text to engage students and improve results. Interactive, self-paced tutorials provide individualized coaching to help students stay on track. With a wide range of activities available, students can actively learn, understand, and retain even the most difficult concepts. The text and Mastering Engineering work together to guide students through engineering concepts with a multi-step approach to problems.

**Mastering Engineering tutorial homework problems**are designed to emulate the instructor’s office-hour environment. Tutorials guide students through engineering concepts in multi-step problems that provide feedback specific to their errors, along with optional hints for breaking down the problems into smaller steps.- Wrong-answer feedback, personalized for each student, responds to a wide variety of common wrong answers with immediate feedback specific to their error.
- The Optional Hints feature provides hints of two types. Declarative hints give advice on how to approach the problem, while Socratic hints break down a problem into smaller sub-problems.
- Homework problems support the problem-solving techniques in the text.
**Video Solutions**offer step-by-step solution walkthroughs of representative homework problems from each section of the text.

**Mastering gradebook and diagnostic tools**capture the step-by-step work of every student — including wrong answers submitted, hints requested, and time taken at every step of every problem — providing insight into the most common misconceptions among students.- The Gradebook records all scores for automatically graded assignments. Struggling students and challenging assignments are highlighted in shades of red, giving instructors an at-a-glance view of potential hurdles in the course.
- Gradebook Diagnostic Charts provide unique insight into class and student performance. With a single click, a selection of charts summarizes key performance measures such as item difficulty, time on task, and grade distribution.
- The Student Data view, also available with a single click, provides quick statistics on how the class compares to the national results. Wrong-answer summaries give unique insight into students’ misconceptions and facilitate just-in-time teaching adjustments.

**Learning Outcomes Summaries**track student- or class-level performance for both publisher- and instructor-provided learning outcomes. All assignable Mastering Engineering content has been tagged to ABET Learning Outcomes A, E, & K. Mastering also enables instructors to add their own learning outcomes and associate those with Mastering Engineering content.**Learning Catalytics**helps generate class discussion, customize lectures, and promote peer-to-peer learning with real-time analytics. As a student response tool, Learning Catalytics uses students’ smartphones, tablets, or laptops to engage them in more interactive tasks and thinking.^{™}- Help your students develop critical thinking skills.
- Monitor responses to find out where your students are struggling.
- Rely on real-time data to adjust your teaching strategy.
- Automatically group students for discussion, teamwork, and peer-to-peer learning.

1. Introduction

2. Units, Significant Figures, and Field Notes

3.Theory of Errors In Observations

4.Leveling—Theory, Methods, and Equipment

5. Leveling—Field Procedures and ComputatIons

6. Distance Measurement

7. Angles, Azimuths, and BearIngs

8. Total Station Instruments; Angle Observations

9. Traversing

10. Traverse Computations

13. Global NavigatIon Satellite Systems—Introduction and Principles of Operation

14. Global Navigation SatellIte Systems—Static Surveys

15. Global Navigation Satellite Systems—KInematic Surveys

16. Adjustments by Least Squares

17. Mapping Surveys

18. Mapping

19. Control Surveys and GeodetIc ReductIons

20. State Plane CoordInates and Other Map Projections

21. Boundary Surveys

22. Surveys of the PublIc Lands

24. HorIzontal Curves

Appendix A: Tape Correction Problems

Appendix B: Example Noteforms

Appendix C: Astronomical Observations

Appendix D: Using the Worksheets from the Companion Website

Appendix E: Introduction to Matrices

Appendix F: U.S. State Plane Coordinate System Defining Parameters

Appendix G: Answers to Selected Problems**Dr. Charles Ghilani is** a Professor of Engineering in the B.S. Surveying Engineering and A.S. Surveying Technology programs at Penn State. He holds a Ph.D. and M.S. in Civil and Environmental Engineering from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and a B.S. degree in mathematics and education from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. He has been involved in education since 1974; teaching at various levels from elementary through graduate school.

Dr. Ghilani has received numerous awards including: a Campus Innovation Award (1991) and Professional Development Award (1994), P.S.L.S. presidential commendation in 1990, Outstanding Club Advisor in 1992, a Distinguished Service Award from the Pennsylvania Society of Land Surveyors in 1995, an American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM) fellowship (1999), and the Earle J. Fennell Award (2001) for outstanding service in surveying and mapping education from ACSM. He is a member of the graduate faculty at Penn State and University of Maine. Dr. Ghilani is a member of the American Congress of Surveying and Mapping, the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, the Wisconsin Society of Land Surveyors, and the Pennsylvania Society of Land Surveyors.

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