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Which of the following statements about effective nuclear
charge for the outermost valence electron of an atom is incorrect?
(i) The effective nuclear charge can be thought of as the
true nuclear charge minus a screening constant due to the other
electrons in the atom. (ii) Effective nuclear charge increases
going left to right across a row of the periodic table. (iii) Valence
electrons screen the nuclear charge more effectively than do
core electrons. (iv) The effective nuclear charge shows a sudden
decrease when we go from the end of one row to the beginning
of the next row of the periodic table. (v) The change in effective
nuclear charge going down a column of the periodic table is
generally less than that going across a row of the periodic table