# Periodic Trend: Effective Nuclear Charge

**Effective Nuclear Charge (Z _{eff})** measures the force exerted onto an electron by the nucleus.

## Periodic Trend: Effective Nuclear Charge

*Higher* the **Effective Nuclear Charge (Z _{Eff})**,

*greater*the attractive force, which results in electrons being pulled closer to the nucleus.

*Higher* the **Shielding Constant (S)**, *greater* the repulsive force between valence and inner core electrons, which results in valence electrons pushed away from the nucleus.

## Periodic Trend: Effective Nuclear Charge

Moving towards the top right corner of the Periodic Table causes effective nuclear charge to increase.

## Periodic Trend: Effective Nuclear Charge Example 1

## Periodic Trend: Effective Nuclear Charge

## Periodic Trend: Effective Nuclear Charge Example 2

What is the identity of an element when the effective nuclear charge of its valence electrons is 18 while its shielding constant is 5?

## Periodic Trend: Effective Nuclear Charge Example 3

In which orbital does an electron in a sulfur atom experience the greatest shielding?

Using Slater’s Rules calculate the effective nuclear charge of the 4d orbital electron in iodine.

- For a multielectron atom, a 3s orbital lies lower in energy than a 3p orbital because (LO 5.16) (a) a 3p orbit...
- Among the elements N, O, P, and S, which element or elements have the smallest effect nuclear charge if we use...
- Which of the following statements about effective nuclear charge for the outermost valence electron of an atom...
- Detailed calculations show that the value of Zeff for the outermost electrons in Na and K atoms is 2.51+ and ...
- Detailed calculations show that the value of Zeff for the outermost electrons in Si and Cl atoms is 4.29+ and...
- Which will experience the greater effect nuclear charge, the electrons in the n = 2 shell in F or the n = 2 sh...
- Arrange the following atoms in order of increasing effective nuclear charge experienced by the electrons in th...
- Consider the isoelectronic ions F- and Na+. (b) Using Equation 7.1 and assuming that core electrons contribute...
- (a) From the data in Table 8.2, calculate the effective charges on the Br atom of the HBr molecule in units of...
- (a) From the data in Table 8.2, calculate the effective charges on the H atom of the HBr molecule in units of ...
- Which experience a greater effective nuclear charge: the valence electrons in beryllium or the valence electr...
- Arrange the atoms according to decreasing effective nuclear charge experienced by their valence electrons: S,...
- If core electrons completely shielded valence electrons from nuclear charge (i.e., if each core electron redu...
- If core electrons completely shielded valence electrons from nuclear charge (i.e., if each core electron redu...
- If core electrons completely shielded valence electrons from nuclear charge (i.e., if each core electron redu...
- In Section 3.6, we estimated the effective nuclear charge on beryllium’s valence electrons to be slightly grea...
- Why is energy usually released when an electron is added to a neutral atom but absorbed when an electron is re...
- Figure 7.4 shows the radial probability distribution functions for the 2s orbitals and 2p orbitals. (b) How wo...
- (b) Repeat these calculations using Slater’s rules.
- (a) If the core electrons were totally effective at screening the valence electrons and the valence electrons ...
- How does electron shielding in multielectron atoms give rise to energy differences among 3s, 3p, and 3d orbita...
- Order the electrons in the following orbitals according to their shielding ability: 4s, 4d, 4f.
- One method for calculating Zeff is to use the equation where E is the energy necessary to remove an electron ...