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# Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, Global Edition, 4th edition

Published by Pearson (December 20, 2021) © 2022

**Stuart Russell**University of California at Berkeley**Peter Norvig**

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**ISBN-13: 9781292401133**

Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, Global Edition

Published 2021

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#### Explore the ever-expanding, fascinating field of AI and its latest technologies with this industry-leading text.

**Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, Global Edition, 4 ^{th} Edition** (AI), explores the full breadth and depth of the field, delving into the advanced methods of reasoning, deep learning, perception, and mathematics.

From robotic planetary explorers to online services with billions of users, the textbook studies a wide range of current methods and technologies, further considering the ethical values of practicing the discipline.

With a new site containing all the exercises, this leading text is a must-read edition, offering a multi-faceted approach to this expanding subject.

**Chapter I Artificial Intelligence**

**Introduction**- What Is AI?
- The Foundations of Artificial Intelligence
- The History of Artificial Intelligence
- The State of the Art
- Risks and Benefits of AI

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Intelligent Agents**- Agents and Environments
- Good Behavior: The Concept of Rationality
- The Nature of Environments
- The Structure of Agents

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Solving Problems by Searching**- Problem-Solving Agents
- Example Problems
- Search Algorithms
- Uninformed Search Strategies
- Informed (Heuristic) Search Strategies
- Heuristic Functions

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Search in Complex Environments**- Local Search and Optimization Problems
- Local Search in Continuous Spaces
- Search with Nondeterministic Actions
- Search in Partially Observable Environments
- Online Search Agents and Unknown Environments

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Constraint Satisfaction Problems**- Defining Constraint Satisfaction Problems
- Constraint Propagation: Inference in CSPs
- Backtracking Search for CSPs
- Local Search for CSPs
- The Structure of Problems

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Adversarial Search and Games**- Game Theory
- Optimal Decisions in Games
- Heuristic Alpha--Beta Tree Search
- Monte Carlo Tree Search
- Stochastic Games
- Partially Observable Games
- Limitations of Game Search Algorithms

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Logical Agents**- Knowledge-Based Agents
- The Wumpus World
- Logic
- Propositional Logic: A Very Simple Logic
- Propositional Theorem Proving
- Effective Propositional Model Checking
- Agents Based on Propositional Logic

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**First-Order Logic**- Representation Revisited
- Syntax and Semantics of First-Order Logic
- Using First-Order Logic
- Knowledge Engineering in First-Order Logic

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Inference in First-Order Logic**- Propositional vs. First-Order Inference
- Unification and First-Order Inference
- Forward Chaining
- Backward Chaining
- Resolution

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Knowledge Representation**- Ontological Engineering
- Categories and Objects
- Events
- Mental Objects and Modal Logic
- for Categories
- Reasoning with Default Information

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Automated Planning**- Definition of Classical Planning
- Algorithms for Classical Planning
- Heuristics for Planning
- Hierarchical Planning
- Planning and Acting in Nondeterministic Domains
- Time, Schedules, and Resources
- Analysis of Planning Approaches

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Quantifying Uncertainty**- Acting under Uncertainty
- Basic Probability Notation
- Inference Using Full Joint Distributions
- Independence 12.5 Bayes' Rule and Its Use
- Naive Bayes Models
- The Wumpus World Revisited

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Probabilistic Reasoning**- Representing Knowledge in an Uncertain Domain
- The Semantics of Bayesian Networks
- Exact Inference in Bayesian Networks
- Approximate Inference for Bayesian Networks
- Causal Networks

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Probabilistic Reasoning over Time**- Time and Uncertainty
- Inference in Temporal Models
- Hidden Markov Models
- Kalman Filters
- Dynamic Bayesian Networks

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Making Simple Decisions**- Combining Beliefs and Desires under Uncertainty
- The Basis of Utility Theory
- Utility Functions
- Multiattribute Utility Functions
- Decision Networks
- The Value of Information
- Unknown Preferences

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Making Complex Decisions**- Sequential Decision Problems
- Algorithms for MDPs
- Bandit Problems
- Partially Observable MDPs
- Algorithms for Solving POMDPs

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Multiagent Decision Making**- Properties of Multiagent Environments
- Non-Cooperative Game Theory
- Cooperative Game Theory
- Making Collective Decisions

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Probabilistic Programming**- Relational Probability Models
- Open-Universe Probability Models
- Keeping Track of a Complex World
- Programs as Probability Models

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Learning from Examples**- Forms of Leaming
- Supervised Learning .
- Learning Decision Trees .
- Model Selection and Optimization
- The Theory of Learning
- Linear Regression and Classification
- Nonparametric Models
- Ensemble Learning
- Developing Machine Learning Systen

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Knowledge in Learning**- A Logical Formulation of Learning
- Knowledge in Learning
- Exmplanation-Based Leaening
- Learning Using Relevance Information
- Inductive Logic Programming

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Learning Probabilistic Models**- Statistical Learning
- Learning with Complete Data
- Learning with Hidden Variables: The EM Algorithm

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Deep Learning**- Simple Feedforward Networks
- Computation Graphs for Deep Learning
- Convolutional Networks
- Learning Algorithms
- Generalization
- Recurrent Neural Networks
- Unsupervised Learning and Transfer Learning
- Applications

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Reinforcement Learning**- Learning from Rewards
- Passive Reinforcement Learning
- Active Reinforcement Learning
- Generalization in Reinforcement Learning
- Policy Search
- Apprenticeship and Inverse Reinforcement Leaming
- Applications of Reinforcement Learning

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Natural Language Processing**- Language Models
- Grammar
- Parsing
- Augmented Grammars
- Complications of Real Natural Languagr
- Natural Language Tasks

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Deep Learning for Natural Language Processing**- Word Embeddings
- Recurrent Neural Networks for NLP
- Sequence-to-Sequence Models
- The Transformer Architecture
- Pretraining and Transfer Learning
- State of the art

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Robotics**- Robots
- Robot Hardware
- What kind of problem is robotics solving?
- Robotic Perception
- Planning and Control
- Planning Uncertain Movements
- Reinforcement Laming in Robotics
- Humans and Robots
- Alternative Robotic Frameworks
- Application Domains

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Computer Vision**- Introduction
- Image Formation
- Simple Image Features
- Classifying Images
- Detecting Objects
- The 3D World
- Using Computer Vision

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**Philosophy, Ethics, and Safety of Al**- The Limits of Al
- Can Machines Really Think?
- The Ethics of Al

#### Summary

#### Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**The Future of AI**- Al Components
- Al Architectures

**Chapter II Problem Solving**

**Chapter III Knowledge, Reasoning and Planning**

**Chapter IV Uncertain Knowledge and Reasoning**

**Chapter V Machine Learning**

**Chapter VI Communicating, perceiving, and acting**

**Chapter VII Conclusions**

**A Mathematical Background**

- A.1 Complexity Analysis and O0 Notation
- A.2 Vectors, Matrices, and Linear Algebra
- A.3 Probability Distributions
- Bibliographical and Historical Notes

**B Notes on Languages and Algorithms**

- B.1 Defining Languages with Backus-Naur Form (BNF)
- B.2 Describing Algorithms with Pseudocode
- B.3 Online Supplemental Material

**Bibliography**

**Index**

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