# Engineering Electromagnetics and Waves, 2nd edition

Published by Pearson (December 4, 2014) © 2015

**Umran S. Inan**Stanford University**Aziz Inan****Ryan Said**

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*For courses in Electromagnetic Fields & Waves*

*Engineering Electromagnetics and Waves* provides engineering students with a solid grasp of electromagnetic fundamentals and electromagnetic waves by emphasizing physical understanding and practical applications. The topical organization of the text starts with an initial exposure to transmission lines and transients on high-speed distributed circuits, naturally bridging electrical circuits and electromagnetics.

This book is designed for upper-division college and university engineering students, for those who wish to learn the subject through self-study, and for practicing engineers who need an up-to-date reference text. The student using this text is assumed to have completed typical lower-division courses in physics and mathematics as well as a first course on electrical engineering circuits.

**Teaching and Learning Experience**

This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience–for you and your students. It provides:

**Modern Chapter Organization****Emphasis on Physical Understanding****Detailed Examples, Selected Application Examples, and Abundant Illustrations****Numerous End-of-chapter Problems, Emphasizing Selected Practical Applications****Historical Notes on the Great Scientific Pioneers****Emphasis on Clarity without Sacrificing Rigor and Completeness****Hundreds of Footnotes Providing Physical Insight, Leads for Further Reading, and Discussion of Subtle and Interesting Concepts and Applications**

**Modern Chapter Organization**

- To provide continuity with electric circuit theory, transmission lines are covered first.
- Fundamental subject material is then covered in a logical order, following the historical development of human understanding of electromagnetic phenomena.
- So that the physical laws are easily understood and accepted, the fundamental laws are based on experimental observations and on physical grounds, including brief discussions of the precision of the fundamental experiments.
- Once the complete set of fundamental laws is established, their most profound implications are discussed: the propagation of electromagnetic waves.
**NEW!**Two new sections on increasingly relevant modern topics are introduced: Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and Metamaterials.

**Emphasis on Physical Understanding**

- Students will gain a clear understanding and a firm grasp of the basic principles so that they can understand, formulate, and interpret the results of complex practical problems.
- To empower the reader with more than just a working knowledge of a dry set of vector relations and formulas stated axiomatically, this text maintains a constant link with established as well as new and emerging applications, while at the same time emphasizing fundamental physical insight and solid understanding of basic principles.
- Rigorous analyses are supplemented with extensive discussions of the experimental bases of the laws, of the microscopic versus macroscopic concepts of electromagnetic fields and their behavior in material media, and of the physical nature of the electromagnetic fields and waves, often from alternative points of view.
- Description of the electrical and magnetic properties of material media at a sufficiently simple, yet accurate manner at the introductory electromagnetics level has always been a challenge. Therefore, the authors distill the essentials of physically-based treatments available in physics texts, providing quantitative physical insight into microscopic behavior of materials and the representation of this behavior in terms of macroscopic parameters.
- Difficult three-dimensional vector differential and integral concepts are discussed when they are encountered–again, with the emphasis being on physical insight.

**Detailed Examples, Selected Application Examples, and Abundant Illustrations**

- Over 190 illustrative examples are detailed over eleven chapters, with five of the chapters having at least 20 examples each.
- Each example is presented with an abbreviated topical title, a clear problem statement, and a detailed solution.
- In recognition of the importance of visualization in the reader’s understanding, especially in view of the three-dimensional nature of electromagnetic fields, over 500 diagrams, graphs, and illustrations appear throughout the book.

**Numerous End-of-chapter Problems, Emphasizing Selected Practical Applications**

- Each chapter is concluded with a variety of homework problems to allow the students to test their understanding of the material covered in the chapter, with a total of over 400 exercise problems spread over eleven chapters.
**NEW!**Over 100 of these problems are new to the second edition or have been modified from the first edition.- The topical content of each problem is clearly identified in an abbreviated title.
- Many problems explore interesting applications, and most chapters include several practical “real-life” problems to motivate students.

**Historical Notes on the Great Scientific Pioneers**

- To bring about a better appreciation of the complex physical concepts as well as to keep the reader interested, outstanding examples of pioneering scientists and development of scientific thought are referenced throughout the text.

**Emphasis on Clarity without Sacrificing Rigor and Completeness**

- This textbook presents the material at a simple enough level to be readable by undergraduate students, but it is also rigorous in providing references and footnotes for in-depth analyses of selected concepts and applications.
- This text provides the students with a taste of rigor and completeness at the level of classical reference texts–combined with a level of physical insight that was so well exemplified in some very old texts–while still maintaining the necessary level of organization and presentation clarity required for a modern textbook.
- A rigorous and in-depth exposure to a diverse range of applications of electromagnetics, in the body of the text, in examples, and in end-of-chapter problems, is provided.

**Hundreds of Footnotes Providing Physical Insight, Leads for Further Reading, and Discussion of Subtle and Interesting Concepts and Applications**

- Over 550 footnotes are spread over 11 chapters. These footnotes do not interrupt the flow of ideas and the development of the main topics, but they provide an unusual degree of completeness for a textbook at this level, with interesting and sometimes thought-provoking content to make the subject more appealing and satisfying.

This book represents an effort to merge the most important concepts from the authors’ two previous textbooks: *Engineering Electromagnetics* and *Electromagnetic Waves*. Some of the advanced topics from these two books were moved to a web addendum to focus the reader on the core concepts central to transmission lines, electromagnetics, and electromagnetic waves.

- Two new sections on increasingly relevant modern topics are introduced: Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and Metamaterials.
- While these are relatively advanced topics, some of the fundamental physics underpinning these two areas of active research and development connect directly to the core ideas presented in this book, and so they give concrete examples of how a solid foundation in electromagnetics and waves is still very relevant to modern technology.
- The wider breadth of topics covered by this single volume allows the instructor to tailor the content based on the duration of the course.
- Two tables are provided in the preface with suggested course content for a single course and two course sequence.
- The sections marked under “Cover” are recommended for complete coverage, including illustrative examples, whereas those marked “Skim” are recommended to be covered lightly, although the material provided is more complete in case individual students want to have more in-depth coverage.
- The one course sequences provide the students with (1) a working knowledge of transmission lines, (2) a solid, physically based background and a firm understanding of Maxwell’s equations and their experimental bases, and (3) an introduction to electromagnetic waves.
- In addition to a more in-depth coverage of the transmission lines chapters and the development of Maxwell’s equations, the two-course sequences give the student a working knowledge of electromagnetic wave phenomena and their applications.

*1 Introduction 1*

**1.1 **Lumped versus Distributed Electrical Circuits 5

**1.2 **Electromagnetic Components 14

**1.3 **Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves 15

**1.4 **Summary 17

* *

* *

*2 Transient Response of Transmission Lines 23*

**2.1 **Heuristic Discussion of Transmission Line Behavior and Circuit

Models 25

**2.2 **Transmission Line Equations and Wave Solutions 29

**2.3 **Reflection at Discontinuities 36

**2.4 **Transient Response of Transmission Lines with Resistive

Terminations 47

**2.5 **Transient Response of Transmission Lines with Reactive

Terminations 60

**vi **Contents

**2.6 **Time-Domain Reflectometry 70

**2.7 **Transmission Line Parameters 75

**2.8 **Summary 78

* *

*3 Steady-State Waves on Transmission Lines 99*

**3.1 **Wave Solutions Using Phasors 101

**3.2 **Voltage and Current on Lines with Short- or Open-Circuit

Terminations 105

**3.3 **Lines Terminated in an Arbitrary Impedance 117

**3.4 **Power Flow on a Transmission Line 138

**3.5 **Impedance Matching 147

**3.6 **The Smith Chart 164

**3.7 **Sinusoidal Steady-State Behavior of Lossy Lines 176

**3.8 **Summary 193

* *

*4 The Static Electric Field 211*

**4.1 **Electric Charge 213

**4.2 **Coulomb’s Law 218

**4.3 **The Electric Field 226

**4.4 **The Electric Potential 239

**4.5 **Electric Flux and Gauss’s Law 257

**4.6 **Divergence: Differential Form of Gauss’s Law 268

**4.7 **Metallic Conductors 276

**4.8 **Poisson’s and Laplace’s Equations 291

**4.9 **Capacitance 297

**4.10 **Dielectric Materials 305

**4.11 **Electrostatic Boundary Conditions 321

**4.12 **Electrostatic Energy 328

**4.13 **Electrostatic Forces 337

**4.14 **Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) 343

**4.15 **Summary 354

Contents **vii**

* *

*5 Steady Electric Currents 367*

**5.1 **Current Density and the Microscopic View of Conduction 368

**5.2 **Current Flow, Ohm’s Law, and Resistance 374

**5.3 **Electromotive Force and Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law 381

**5.4 **The Continuity Equation and Kirchhoff’s Current Law 385

**5.5 **Redistribution of Free Charge 387

**5.6 **Boundary Conditions for Steady Current Flow 389

**5.7 **Duality of **J **and **D**: The Resistance—Capacitance Analogy 395

**5.8 **Joule’s Law 400

**5.9 **Surface and Line Currents 402

**5.10 **Summary 404

* *

*6 The Static Magnetic Field 415*

**6.1 **Amp`ere’s Law of Force 417

**6.2 **The Biot—Savart Law and Its Applications 424

**6.3 **Amp`ere’s Circuital Law 438

**6.4 **Curl of the Magnetic Field: Differential Form of Amp`ere’s Law 446

**6.5 **Vector Magnetic Potential 459

**6.6 **The Magnetic Dipole 467

**6.7 **Divergence of **B**, Magnetic Flux, and Inductance 473

**6.8 **Magnetic Fields in Material Media 491

**6.9 **Boundary Conditions for Magnetostatic Fields 504

**6.10 **Magnetic Forces and Torques 508

**6.11 **Summary 517

*7 Time-Varying Fields and Maxwell’s Equations *

**7.1**Faraday’s Law 534

**7.2 **Induction Due to Motion 546

**7.3 **Energy in a Magnetic Field 556

**7.4 **Displacement Current and Maxwell’s Equations 568

**viii **Contents

**7.5 **Review of Maxwell’s Equations 579

**7.6 **Summary 584

* *

*8 Waves in an Unbounded Medium 595*

**8.1 **Plane Waves in a Simple, Source-Free, and Lossless Medium 596

**8.2 **Time-Harmonic Uniform Plane Waves in a Lossless Medium 604

**8.3 **Plane Waves in Lossy Media 615

**8.4 **Electromagnetic Energy Flow and the Poynting Vector 635

**8.5 **Polarization of Electromagnetic Waves 653

**8.6 **Arbitrarily Directed Uniform Plane Waves 667

**8.7 **Nonplanar Electromagnetic Waves 673

**8.8 **Summary 674

* *

*9 Reflection, Transmission, and Refraction of Waves*

*at Planar Interfaces 689*

**9.1 **Normal Incidence on a Perfect Conductor 690

**9.2 **Normal Incidence on a Lossless Dielectric 700

**9.3 **Multiple Dielectric Interfaces 708

**9.4 **Normal Incidence on a Lossy Medium 721

**9.5 **Oblique Incidence upon a Perfect Conductor 734

**9.6 **Oblique Incidence at a Dielectric Boundary 747

**9.7 **Total Internal Reflection 765

**9.8 **Oblique Incidence on a Lossy Medium 777

**9.9 **Summary 787

* *

*10 Parallel-Plate and Dielectric Slab Waveguides 811*

**10.1 **Waves between Parallel Metal Plates 814

**10.2 **Dielectric Waveguides 844

**10.3 **Wave Velocities and Waveguide Dispersion 864

**10.4 **Summary 876

Contents **ix**

* *

*11 Field—Matter Interactions and Metamaterials 885*

**11.1 **Wave Propagation in Ionized Gases (Plasmas) 887

**11.2 **Frequency Response of Dielectrics and Conductors 899

**11.3 **Metamaterials 906

**11.4 **Summary 924

*A Vector Analysis 929*

**A.1 **Vector Components, Unit Vectors, and Vector Addition 930

**A.2 **Vector Multiplication 932

**A.3 **Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinate Systems 935

**A.4 **Vector Identities 943

*B Uniqueness Theorem 947*

*C Derivation of Ampe` re’s Circuital Law from the Biot—Savart Law 951*

*Symbols and Units for Basic Quantities 955*

*General Bibliography 961*

*Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems 963*

*Index 975*

** UMRAN S. INAN** is Professor of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University, where he serves as Director of the Space, Telecommunications, and Radioscience (STAR) Laboratory. He has received the 1998 Stanford University Tau Beta Pi Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching, and actively conducts research in electromagnetic waves in plasmas, lightning discharges, ionospheric physics, and very low frequency remote sensing. Dr. Inan has served as the Ph.D. thesis advisor for 13 students and is a senior member of IEEE, a member of Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Xi, the American Geophysical Union, the Electromagnetics Academy, and serves as Secretary of U.S. National Committee of the International Union of Radio Science (URSI).

** AZIZ S. INAN** is Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Portland, where he has also served as Department Chairman. A winner of the University's faculty teaching award, he conducts research in electromagnetic wave propagation in conducting and inhomogeneous media. He is a member of Tau Beta Pi and IEEE.

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