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Climatology: An Atmospheric Science, 3rd edition

  • John J. Hidore
  • John E. Oliver
  • Mary Snow
  • Richard Snow

Published by Pearson (August 20th 2009) - Copyright © 2010

3rd edition

Climatology: An Atmospheric Science

ISBN-13: 9780321602053

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Taking the study of atmospheric science beyond the daily weather map, Climatology explores the broader impacts of weather and climate. The authors cover multiple facets of climate, many of which play a significant role in everyday life—and examine many topics, such as past climates, that are seldom adequately covered in other introductions to the subject. The science behind widely publicized events is explained within the systematic coverage of climate and climatology. The relationships between climate and peopleare discussed in detail, and readers are shown how common things ranging from wind-chill to architecture are understood in the wider context of climate. In the Third Edition, data and information have been updated throughout and significant coverage is devoted to climate change.
KEY TOPICS: Climatology in the World Today; Energy and the Climate System; Atmospheric Temperatures; Climate and the Hydrologic Cycle; Wind and Circulation Patterns; Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions; Air Mass and Synoptic Climatology; Air Mass and Synoptic Climatology; Climatology of Atmospheric Storms; Natural Causes of Climate Change; Reconstruction of Past Climates; Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming; Climate Change and the Physical Environment; Climate Change and the Living World; Changes in Atmospheric Chemistry; Regional Climates: Scales of Study; Tropical Climates; Mid-Latitude Climates; Polar and Highland Climates; The Human Response to Climate; Climate, Agriculture, and Industry.
MARKET: A useful reference for anyone who wants to learn more about Earth’s climate and weather.

Table of contents


Chapter 1    Climatology in the World Today
The Atmosphere and Atmospheric Sciences
Climatology: A Brief History
        The Content of Climatology
Atmospheric Variables and Data Availability
        Data Representation
The Standard Atmosphere
        Atmospheric chemistry
        Constant gases
        The Gas Laws
        Variable Gases
Vertical Structure of Earth's Atmosphere
        Above the Stratosphere
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 2    Energy and the Climate System
The Solar Source
Energy Transfer
The Nature of Radiation
The Atmosphere and Solar Radiation
The Planetary Energy Budget
        The Greenhouse Effect
Earth's Surface and Solar Radiation
The Steady-State System
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 3    Atmospheric Temperatures    
The Seasons
Daily Temperature Changes
        Daytime Heating
        Nighttime Cooling
        Daily Temperature Range
Seasonal Lag and Extreme Temperatures    
Factors Influencing the Vertical Distribution of Temperature
Factors Influencing the Horizontal Distribution of Temperature
        Surface Properties
        Aspect and Topography
        Dynamic Factors
Temperatures over the Earth’s Surface
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 4    Climate and the Hydrologic Cycle
Changes of State
The Hydrologic Cycle
Relative Humidity
Evaporation and Transpiration
Condensation Near the Ground: Dew, Mist and Fog
Foggy Places
Condensation Above the Surface: Clouds
Cloud Forms and Classification
Vertical Motion in the Atmosphere
        Adiabatic Heating and Cooling
        Lapse Rates
Regional Variation in Precipitation
Variation in Precipitation Through Time
The Water Balance
        A method for Calculating the Water Balance
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 5    Wind and Circulation Patterns
Atmospheric Pressure
Factors Influencing Air Motion
        Newton’s Laws of Motion
        Pressure Gradient
        Coriolis Effect
        Rotational Forces
The Resulting Patterns
The General Circulation
        Meridional Circulation
        Zonal Circulation
Tropical Circulation
        Trade Winds
        The Intertropical Convergence Zone
Mid-latitude Circulation
Polar Circulation
Seasonal Changes in the Global Pattern
        Asian Monsoon
Periodic Local Winds
        Land and Sea Breezes
        Mountain and Valley Breezes
        Föhn Winds
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Chapter 6    Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions
Ocean Currents
The Thermohaline Circulation
The Walker Circulation
        El Niño
        El Niño Episode of 1982-1983
        El Niño Event of 1997-1998
        El Niño and Northern Hemisphere Weather
        Counterpoint-La Niña
The Impacts of El Niño
        Agricultural Losses
        Disease Outbreaks
        Wildlife Losses
Forecasting El Niño
The Pacific Decadal Oscillation
Interannual Variation in the Monsoons
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 7    Air Mass and Synoptic Climatology
Air Masses
Fronts and Middle Latitude Cyclones
        Cyclones and Upper Air Circulation
Synoptic Climatic Studies
        The Hemispheric Scale
Satellite Climatology
        Orbits and Sensors
        Limitations and Opportunities of Satellite Studies
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 8    Climatology of Atmospheric Storms
Tropical Cyclones
        Formation of Tropical Cyclones
        The Time and Place of Occurrence
        Hurricane Surge and Coastal Flooding
        North American Hurricanes
        Hurricane Hazard in the United States
        Associated Hazards
        Formation of Tornadoes
        Distribution of Tornadoes
        Hazards of Tornadoes
        Tornado Outbreaks of 1925 and 1974
        Tornado Forecasting
        Radar-Tool for Analysis and Forecasting
        Doppler Radar
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions


Chapter 9    Natural Causes of Climate Change
Short-Term Changes
        Variation in Solar Irradiance
        Sunspot Activity
        Variation in Atmospheric Dust
        Human-Induced Changes in Earth’s Surface
Long-Term Climatic Changes
        Earth–Sun Relationships
        Distribution of Continents
        Variation in the Oceans
        Extraterrestrial Impacts
Other Theories
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 10    Reconstruction of Past Climates
Evidence from Ice
        Glaciers and Glaciation
        Ice Sheets and Cores
        Periglacial Evidence
Ancient Sediments
Sea Level Changes
Past Life
        The Faunal Evidence
        The Floral Evidence
Climatic Change over Geologic Time
Climate Since the Ice Retreat
Evidence from the Historical Period
        The Last 1000 Years
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 11    Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming
Carbon in the Environment
Changing Levels of Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide and the Theory of Global Warming
Future Changes in Carbon Dioxide
Other Greenhouse Gases
        Permafrost and methane
        Nitrogen oxides
        Thermal Pollution
Changes in the Temperature Record
Future Changes in Global Temperatures
Politics of Climate Change
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 12    Climate Change and the Physical Environment
Antarctic Warming
Arctic Warming
        Sea Ice
        Arctic Ice Shelves
        Melting Permafrost
Melting of Earth's Mountain Glaciers
        Europe and the Americas
Ocean Properties   
        Rising Temperatures
        Rising Sea Level
        Future Sea Level
Changing Weather Systems
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 13    Climate Change and the Living World   
Terrestrial Systems
        Length of Growing Season
        North American Forests
        Climate Change and Agriculture
Aquatic Systems
        Coral Reefs
        Fresh Water Systems
Impact of Rising Sea Level
Climate Change and Human Health
Spread of Tropical Diseases
        West Nile Encephalitis Virus
        Dengue Fever
        Chikungunya (Chicken Guinea)
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 14    Changes in Atmospheric Chemistry
Atmospheric Pollutants
        Carbon Monoxide
        Sulfur Compounds
        Nitrogen Oxides
        Surface Ozone
        Atmospheric Brown Clouds
Acid precipitation
        Global Distribution of Acid Rain
        Impact of Acid Precipitation on Terrestrial Systems
        Acid Rain and Human Health
        Impact of Acid Rain on Structures
Stratospheric Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation
         Stratospheric Ozone
        Antarctic Ozone Hole
        Global Decline in Ozone
        International Response to Ozone Depletion
        Ultraviolet Radiation and Living Organisms
        Ultraviolet-B and Human Health
        Future Depletion of Ozone
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions


Chapter 15    Regional Climates: Scales of Study
        General Characteristics of Microclimates
        Role of Surface Cover
        Role of Topography
Local and Mesoscale Climates
        Forest Climates
        Mesoscale Climates
Macroscale Climates
Classification of World Climates
        Approach to Classification
The Köppen System
Climate and the Distribution of Vegetation
        Colder Realms: Taiga and Tundra
        Disturbed Formations
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 16    Tropical Climates           
Radiation and Temperature
The tropical rainforest Climate (Af)
        The Rainforest Biome
        Species Diversity
        Tropical Deforestation
        Deforestation in the Amazon River Valley
        The Galapagos: An Equatorial Dry Region
        Global Warming in the Tropics
The Tropical Wet-and-Dry Climate(Aw)
The Tropical Deserts (BWh)
Coastal Deserts
Desert Storms
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 17    Mid-Latitude Climates
General Characteristics
        Middle latitude Circulation
Climatic Types
        Midlatitude Wet Climates
        Marine West-Coast Climates
        Midlatitude Winter-Dry Climates
        Midlatitude Summer-Dry Climates
        Midlatitude Deserts
Warming in North America
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 18    Polar and Highland Climates
The Arctic Basin
        Polar Lows and Arctic Hurricanes
The Polar Wet and Dry Climate
The Antarctic Continent
        The Energy Balance
        The Windy Continent
The Polar Wet Climate
Highland Climates
Chinook Winds
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions


Chapter 19    The Human Response to Climate
The Physiological Response
Biometeorological Indices
Solar Radiation and People
Climate and Health
        Morbidity and Mortality
Climate and Architecture
        Climate and Primitive Constructions
        Climate and Modern Structures
        Heating and Cooling Degree Days
        The Building Fabric
        Regional House Design
Urban Climates
        The Modified Processes
        The Observed Results
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 20    Climate, Agriculture, and Industry
        Climate and Crop Distribution
        Extending the Climatic Limits
        Climate and Crop Yields
        Industrial Location
        Energy Production
        Air Transport
        Land Transportation
Tourism and Commerce
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions


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