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Creative Impulse: An Introduction to the Arts, 8th edition

  • Dennis J. Sporre

Published by Pearson (February 1st 2008) - Copyright © 2009

8th edition

Creative Impulse: An Introduction to the Arts

ISBN-13: 9780136034933

Includes: Paperback
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  • Paperback

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Overview

The Creative Impulse introduces the arts of the Western tradition with a chronological organization. It covers a wide variety of subjects including painting, sculpture, architecture, theatre, music, dance, literature, and film, all in their historical context. Up-to-date material on modern artistic movements and achievements broadens the scope of the coverage.

Table of contents

SPORRE, CREATIVE IMPULSE 8

Contents

 

Preface 11

 

Introduction

Understanding the Arts 13

 

GETTING STARTED 14

Two-Dimensional Art 14

Media 14   Composition 15

Techniques: Linear Perspective 16

Sculpture 17

Dimensionality 17   Texture 17

Techniques: Lost-Wax Casting 17

Architecture 18

Music 19

Genres 19   Melody and Form 19

Techniques: Musical Notation 19

Theatre 20

Genres 20   Plot, Character, and Visual Elements 20

Literature 20

Genres 20   Point of View, Character, and Plot 21   Theme and Language 21

Cinema 21

Dance 22

Genres 22   Line, Form, and Repetition 22

Features 22

Glossary and Dating 22   Pronunciation 23   Profiles 23   Technology 23   Masterwork 23   A Dynamic World 23   Maps and Timelines 24   Chapter Opener 24   Chapter Review 24   Cybersources and Examples 24

 

PUTTING THE ARTS IN CONTEXT 24

The Arts and Ways of Knowing 24

What Concerns Art? 25

Creativity 25   Aesthetic Communication 25   Symbols 26   Fine and Applied Art 26

The Functions of Art 26

Entertainment 26   Political and Social Commentary 26   Therapy 27   Artifact 27

Evaluating Works of Art 27

Approaches to Criticism 28   Making Judgments 29

 

 

1 The Ancient World 31

 

CONTEXTS AND CONCEPTS 32

Contexts 32

The Stone Age 32   Mesopotamia 33   Ancient Egypt 34

Concepts 34

Individuality and Symbols 34   Civilization 35   Religion 35

Technology: The Invention of the Wheel 35

Literacy 36   Law 37

 

THE ARTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD 38

Painting 38

Sculpture 39

Masterwork: The Human Form 1: The Tell Asmar Statues 40

A Dynamic World: Ancient China 41

Profile: Akhenaton and Nefertiti 45

Architecture 46

Music 47

Dance 48

Literature 48

 

2 The Aegean and Archaic Greece 53

 

CONTEXTS AND CONCEPTS 54

Contexts 54

Minoans 54   Mycenaeans 56

Technology: The Olive Press 58

The Dark Centuries 58   The Hellenes 58

Concepts 59

The Polis 59   The Olympian Gods 60   “Love of Wisdom” 61

 

THE ARTS OF THE AEGEAN AND ARCHAIC GREECE 61

Painting 61

Geometric Style 61   Archaic Style 62   Red- and Black-Figure Pottery 62

Sculpture 63

A Dynamic World: Native America 63

Architecture 66

Music 67

Dance 68

Literature 68

Masterwork: Heroes 1: Homer, The Iliad 69

Profile: Sappho 70

 

3 Greek Classicism and Hellenism 75

 

CONTEXTS AND CONCEPTS 76

Contexts 76

The Persian War 76   The “Golden Age” of Pericles 77   The Peloponnesian Wars 78   The Hellenistic Age 79

Technology: Hero’s Steam Turbine 80

Concepts 81

Historia 81   Sophistry 81   Stoicism and Epicureanism 82   Cynicism and Skepticism 82   Mystery Cults 82   Ethics 83   Aesthetics 83   Classicism and Hellenism 85

 

THE ARTS OF THE CLASSICAL AND HELLENISTIC AGES 85

Painting 85

Sculpture 86

Classical Style 86

A Dynamic World: The Nok Style of Africa 87

Masterwork: The Human Form 2: Myron, Discus Thrower 88

Late Classical Style 90   Hellenistic Style 92

Architecture 93

Theatre 98

Tragedy 98

Profile: Aeschylus 99

Masterwork: Heroes 2: Sophocles, Oedipus the King 101

Comedy 102   Theatre Layout and Form 103

Music 104

Dance 105

Literature 105

 

4 The Roman Period 111

 

CONTEXTS AND CONCEPTS 112

Contexts 112

The Etruscans 112   The Roman Republic 112   The Roman Empire 114

Concepts 117

Roman Law 117   Stoicism 117   Neo-Platonism 118   Divinities and Mystery Cults 118   Classicism 119   Utilitarianism and Pragmatism 120

 

THE ARTS OF THE ROMAN PERIOD 120

Painting 120

A Dynamic World: Chinese Painting 123

Sculpture 124

Architecture 126

Technology: Cement 129

Masterwork: The Dome 1: The Pantheon 130

Theatre 132

Comedy 132   Blood Sport 133

Music 133

Dance 134

Literature 134

Profile: Vergil 135

 

5 Judaism and Early Christianity 141

 

CONTEXTS AND CONCEPTS 142

Contexts 142

Hebrews, Israelites, and Jews 142

Profile: Solomon 146

The Late Roman Empire 146

Technology: Matches 147

Concepts 148

Judaism 148   Christianity 149

 

THE ARTS OF JUDAISM AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY 155

Painting 155

Judaism 155   Christianity 155

Sculpture 156

Late Roman 156   Early Christian 157

A Dynamic World: Shinto Sculpture in Japan 157

Architecture 159

Jerusalem 159

Masterwork: Buildings as Symbols 1: The Temple of Jerusalem 160

The Roman Empire 162

Music and Dance 165

Literature 165

The Hebrew Bible 166   Apocalyptic Literature 169   The New Testament 169

 

6 Byzantium and Islam 175

 

CONTEXTS AND CONCEPTS 176

Contexts 176

Byzantium 176   Muhammad and the Rise of Islam 179

Profile: Muhammad 180

Concepts 182

Orthodoxy 182   Islam 182   Intellectualism 183   Icons 184   Byzantine Cultural Influence 184

 

THE ARTS OF BYZANTIUM AND ISLAM 185

Painting, Mosaics, and Manuscript Illumination 185

Byzantium 185   Islam 188

Sculpture 189

Architecture 192

Byzantium 192

Technology: Spanning Space with Triangles and Pots 192

Masterwork: The Dome 2: Hagia Sophia 194

Profile: Anthemius of Tralles 195

Islam 197

A Dynamic World: Chinese Theatre 200

Theatre, Music, and Dance 201

Byzantium 201   Islam 201

Literature 202

Byzantium 202   Islam 203

 

7 The Early Middle Ages

The Monastic and Feudal Romanesque Period 209

 

CONTEXTS AND CONCEPTS 210

Contexts 210

The Middle Ages 210   The Medieval Church 211

Profile: Pope Gregory I, the Great 211

Charlemagne’s Empire 212

Concepts 213

Monasticism 213   Mysticism 214   Asceticism and Sufism 215   Feudalism 215

Technology: The Viking Ships 217

The Carolingian Renaissance 218

 

THE ARTS OF THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES 218

Painting 218

A Dynamic World: Igbo-Ukwu 220

Sculpture 221

Masterwork: Organizing the Image 1: The Bronze Doors of Hildesheim Cathedral 222

Architecture 226

Theatre 229

Music 229

Sacred Music 229   Secular Music 230

Profile: Hildegard of Bingen 230

Dance 231

Literature 231

Legends 231   Poets and Scholars 232

 

8 The High Middle Ages

The Gothic Age 237

 

CONTEXTS AND CONCEPTS 238

Contexts 238

The Social Order 238   The Hundred Years’ War 240

Technology: A Better Horse Collar 240

The Plague 241   The Great Schism 241

Profile: Joan of Arc 242

The Crusades 243

Concepts 245

Chivalry 245   Secularism 245   Aristotelianism 246   Industrialization 246

 

THE ARTS OF THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES 248

Painting 248

Sculpture 253

Architecture 256

Masterwork: Buildings as Symbols 2: Chartres Cathedral 258

Theatre 262

A Dynamic World: Noh Theatre of Japan 263

Music 265

Dance 266

Literature 267

Religion 267

Profile: Geoffrey Chaucer 268

Profile: St Francis of Assisi 272

Secularism 272

 

9 The Early Renaissance 277

 

CONTEXTS AND CONCEPTS 278

Contexts 278

The Renaissance 278   The World Discovered 279

Technology: Flywheels and Connecting Rods 280

The Papal States 280   Italian City-States 280   The Quattrocento in Florence 282

Concepts 283

Humanism 283   Individualism 284   Scientific Naturalism 284   Capitalism 284

 

THE ARTS OF THE EARLY RENAISSANCE 285

Painting 285

The Masaccian Heritage 285   Lyricism 289

A Dynamic World: Chinese Painting and Music 291

Sculpture 292

Architecture 295

Masterwork: The Dome 3: Florence Cathedral 296

Theatre 298

Music 299

Dance 299

Literature 300

Profile: Niccolò Machiavelli 301

 

10 The High Renaissance and Mannerism 305

 

CONTEXTS AND CONCEPTS 306

Contexts306

The Expanding World 306   The Papal States 307   Spain’s Golden Century 308

Technology: Leonardo: Turning the Screw 310

The Ottoman Turks 311

Concepts 311

Classicism 311   The High Renaissance 312   Mannerism 312

 

THE ARTS OF THE HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM 313

Painting 313

The High Renaissance in Rome 313

Profile: Michelangelo 316

The High Renaissance in Venice 320   Mannerism 322

A Dynamic World: Painting in India 322

Sculpture 324

Masterwork: The Human Form 3: Michelangelo, David 325

Architecture 326

Theatre 330

Music 333

Sacred Choral Music 333   Secular Choral Music 334   Instrumental Music 335

Literature 335

 

11 Renaissance and Reformation in Northern Europe 341

 

CONTEXTS AND CONCEPTS 342

Contexts 342

The Reformation 342   Reformers 342

Profile: Martin Luther 344

Science 347

Technology: Naval Artillery 348

Concepts 348

Christian Humanism 348   Utopianism 349

 

THE ARTS OF THE RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION IN THE NORTH 349

Painting 349

Flanders 349   The Netherlands 351   Germany 353

A Dynamic World: Ming Dynasty Porcelain 357

France 357   England 358

Architecture 358

Theatre 358

Masterwork: Heroes 3: Shakespeare, Hamlet 360

Music 361

Flanders 361   Germany 363   France 363   England 363

Dance 365

Literature 366

 

12 The Baroque Age 371

 

CONTEXTS AND CONCEPTS 372

Contexts 372

The Catholic and Counter-Reformation 372   The Wars of Religion 374   The Scientific Revolution 374

Technology: Standardized Measurement 375

Concepts 377

Academicism 377   Scientific Rationalism 377   Social Contract 377   Absolutism 378

 

THE ARTS OF THE BAROQUE AGE 379

Painting 379

Italy 380   Spain 381   Flanders 382   France 383   The Netherlands (Holland) 384

Sculpture 387

Architecture 390

A Dynamic World: The Taj Mahal 390

Profile: Sir Christopher Wren 394

Masterwork: The Dome 4: St Paul’s Cathedral 394

Theatre 396

Music 398

Instrumental Music 398

Profile: Johann Sebastian Bach 399

Vocal Music 400   Opera 401

Dance 403

Literature 404

Spain 404   England 404

 

13 The Enlightenment 409

 

CONTEXTS AND CONCEPTS 410

Contexts 410

The Enlightenment 410   Technology 412

Technology: James Watt and the Steam Engine 412

Economics and Politics 413

Profile: Maria Theresa 414

Concepts 415

Rationalism 415   Aesthetics 415   Humanitarianism 415

Profile: Voltaire 417

Classicism 418   Feminism 418

 

THE ARTS OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT 419

Painting 419

Rococo Style 419   The English School 420   Genre 423   Neoclassicism 423

Masterwork: Organizing the Image 2: David, The Oath of the Horatii 424

Sculpture 425

Architecture 427

Theatre 430

Britain 430   America 430   France 431

A Dynamic World: Japanese Kabuki Theatre 431

Music 432

Pre-Classical Style 432   Expressive Style 432   Classical Style 433

Dance 437

Literature 438

Rococo 438   Neoclassicism 441   Humanitarianism 442   Feminism 442   Genre 443   Pre-Romantic 443

 

14 The Romantic Age 447

 

CONTEXTS AND CONCEPTS 448

Contexts 448

Technology 448

Technology: Exact Tolerance 449

Social Changes 449   The Victorian Age 451

Concepts 451

Marxism 451   Evolution 451   Idealism 452   Positivism and Materialism 452   Internationalism 452   Patronage 453   Romanticism 453

 

THE ARTS OF THE ROMANTIC AGE 454

Painting 454

Masterwork: Organizing the Image 3: Géricault, The Raft of the “Medusa” 455

A Dynamic World: Japanese Painting 457

Profile: Rosa Bonheur 459

Architecture 460

Theatre 460

Popularism and Historicism 462   Melodrama 463

Music 463

Lieder 463   Piano Works 464   Program Music 465   Symphonies 466   Trends 466

Choral Music 466

Profile: Johannes Brahms 467

Opera 468

Dance469

Literature 471

Romanticism in Europe 471   American Renaissance 475

 

15 Realism, Impressionism, and Beyond 481

 

CONTEXTS AND CONCEPTS 482

Contexts 482

European Migration 482   Workers and Socialism 483   The German Reich 484   A Scientific Explosion 484

Technology: Coca-Cola 485

Nietzschean Philosophy 486   Freudian Psychology 487

Concepts 487

Aestheticism 487   Functionalism 488

 

THE ARTS: REALISM, IMPRESSIONISM, AND BEYOND 488

Painting and Sculpture 488

Realism 488

Masterwork: Organizing the Image 4: Manet, Déjeuner sur l’herbe 490

Pre-Raphaelites 491   Impressionism 492

A Dynamic World: Japanese Painting 496

Post-Impressionism 497   Cubism 500   Mechanism and Futurism 502   Expressionism 502   Fauvism 503

Architecture 504

Profile: Louis Sullivan 506

Theatre 507

Realism and Naturalism 507   Symbolism 508   Aestheticism 508   Expressionism 508

Music 509

Impressionism 509   Naturalism 509   Nontraditionalism 510

Profile: Igor Stravinsky 511

Dance 512

Ethnic Foundations 512   Ballet 512   Modern Dance 514

Literature 514

Realism 514   Pre-Raphaelites 515   Naturalism 515   Impressionism 516   Symbolism 517   Futurism 517   Expressionism 517   Cubism 518

Cinema 518

 

16 Modernism 523

 

CONTEXTS AND CONCEPTS 524

Contexts 524

The Modern World in Conflict 524   Between the Wars 527   World War II 529   Science and War 531

Technology: Computers 532

Concepts 532

Pragmatism 532   Existentialism 533   Abstraction 533   Modernism 534

 

THE ARTS IN THE MODERN WORLD 534

Painting and Sculpture 534

Abstraction 535   Dada 535   Surrealism 536   American Painting 537

Profile: Georgia O’Keeffe 537

The Harlem Renaissance 539   Central American Painting 540   African and Primitive Influences 540

A Dynamic World: African Masks 540

Photography 542

Architecture 543

Masterwork: Buildings as Symbols 3: Wright, Kaufmann House 544

Theatre 547

Epic Theatre 547   Absurdism 547

Music 548

Modern Traditionalism 548   Departures 548   Jazz 550

Dance 550

Modern Dance 550

Literature 551

Modernism 551   The Chicago Renaissance 554   The Harlem Renaissance 555

Cinema 555

Europe 555   The Rise of the Studio 556   New Genres 556   Social Commentary 556

 

17 From Modernism to Postmodernism and Beyond 559

 

CONTEXTS AND CONCEPTS 560

Contexts 560

Decolonization 560   The Cold War 561   European Unification 562   Science and Liberty 562

Technology: Robots 562

Concepts 563

Postmodernism 563   Pluralism 563

 

THE ARTS FROM MODERNISM TO POSTMODERNISM AND BEYOND 564

Painting and Sculpture 565

Postwar Modernism 565

Masterwork: Organizing the Image 5: Frankenthaler, Buddha 566

Profile: Pablo Picasso 567

Postmodernism 577   Pluralism 585

Architecture 586

Postwar Modernism 586   Postmodernism 589   Pluralism 593

Theatre 593

Postwar Modernism 593   Postmodernism 594   Pluralism 596

Music 598

Postwar Modernism 599   Postmodernism 601

Profile: Richard Danielpour 602

Pluralism 603

Dance 605

Modern 605   Ballet 606   Postmodern 606   Pluralism 606

Literature 607

Postmodernism 607   Pluralism 608

Cinema 611

International Film and the Demise of the Studio 611   Pluralism 612

 

 

Glossary 614

Further Reading 622

Notes 624

Literary Acknowledgments 625

Picture Credits 626

Index 627

 

 

 

MAPS

 

1.1 Sites of prehistoric importance in Europe 33

1.2 The ancient Near and Middle East, showing peoples 34

2.1 The Aegean 55

3.1 Ancient Greece 77

4.1 The Roman Republic, 264—31 B.C.E. 114

4.2 The Roman Empire to 280 C.E. 115

5.1 Lands of the Bible, showing trade routes 143

5.2 The Roman Empire in the fourth century C.E. 148

5.3 The spread of Christianity 150

6.1 The empire of Justinian I, showing peoples 177

6.2 The Byzantine Empire, 1340—1403 179

6.3 The Byzantine and Islamic empires, 814 181

7.1 Growth of the empire of Charlemagne, 768—814, and its division, 843 212

8.1 The Crusades 244

9.1 Renaissance Italy 281

9.2 European trade in the fifteenth century 285

10.1 World exploration, 1487—1610 307

11.1 Religious divisions in sixteenth-century Europe 343

11.2 Map of Europe from the Atlas sive cosmo graphicae published by Gerard Mercator, Duisburg, 1585 347

13.1 Scientific thinkers and philosophes of the Enlightenment 416

14.1 The industrialization of Europe in the nineteenth century 450

15.1 European emigration in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries 483

16.1 Europe on the eve of World War I 526

16.2 World War II in Europe 530

16.3 World War II in the Pacific 531

17.1 Collapse of the Soviet bloc, 1989—93 561

 

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