Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society, 8th edition

  • Charles F. Levinthal

Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society (Subscription)

ISBN-13:  9780205959433


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Provides students with a deeper understanding of what impacts drug use.


The eighth edition of Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society examines the impact of drug-taking behavior on our society and our daily lives. The use and abuse of a wide range of licit and illicit drugs are discussed from historical, biological, psychological, and sociological perspectives.

In today's world, drugs and their use present a social paradox, combining the potential for good and for bad. As a society and as individuals, we can be the beneficiaries of drugs or their victims. This text features a comprehensive review of psychoactive drugs, and is notable for the attention it gives to two aspects of drug-taking behavior that have been underreported in other texts: steroid abuse and inhalant abuse.


This text is available in a variety of formats – digital and print. Pearson offers its titles on the devices students love through Pearson’s MyLab products, CourseSmart, Amazon, and more.


Learning Goals

Upon completing this book, readers will be able to:

  • Understand the impact of drug use on behavior and society.
  • Examine the pros and cons to drug use.

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Table of contents

In this Section:
1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents


1. Brief Table of Contents


PART ONE:  Drugs in Society/Drugs in Our Lives  

CHAPTER 1:  Drugs and Behavior Today

CHAPTER 2:  Drug-Taking Behavior: The Personal and Social Concerns

CHAPTER 3:  How Drugs Work in the Body and on the Mind  


PART TWO: Legally Restricted Drugs in Our Society  

CHAPTER 4:   The Major Stimulants: Cocaine and Amphetamines  

CHAPTER 5:   Narcotics: Opium, Heroin, and Synthetic Opiates  

CHAPTER 6:   LSD and Other Hallucinogens  

CHAPTER 7:  Marijuana  


PART THREE:  Legal Drugs in Our Society  

CHAPTER 8:  Alcohol: Social Beverage/Social Drug  

CHAPTER 10: Chronic Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism  

CHAPTER  11: Nicotine and Tobacco  Use


PART FOUR:  Enhancers and Depressants

CHAPTER 12:  Performance Enhancing Drugs and Drug Testing in Sports

CHAPTER  13: Depressents and Inhalants 


PART FIVE: Medicinal Drugs

CHAPTER 14: Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, and Dietary Supplements  

CHAPTER 15: Drugs for Treating Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders  


PART SIX: Prevention and Treatment

CHAPTER  16: Substance-Abuse Prevention

CHAPTER 17: Substance-Abuse Treatment: Strategies for Change 


2. Full Table of Contents


Part One:  Drugs in Society/Drugs in Our Lives

Chapter 1:                 Drugs and Behavior Today

Social Messages about Drug Use    

Two Ways of Looking at Drugs and Behavior

HEALTH LINE: Defining Drugs: Olive Oil, Curry Powder, and a Little Grapefruit?

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Drug Abuse and the College Student: An Assessment Tool      

Drugs in Early Times

Drugs in the Nineteenth Century

Drugs and Behavior in the Twentieth Century

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 1.1: Understanding the History of Drugs and Behavior

Present-Day Attitudes toward Drugs

Patterns of Drug Use in the United States

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 1.2: Understanding Present-Day Drug Use in the United States         19

Making the Decision to Use Drugs

Present-day Concerns

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Facts about Club Drugs


CHAPTER 2:               Drug-Taking Behavior: Personal and Social Issues

Drug Toxicity 

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Acute Toxicity in the News: Drug-Related Deaths        

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 2.1: Understanding Dose-Response Curves      

The DAWN Reports  

From Acute Toxicity to Chronic Toxicity     

Behavioral Tolerance and Drug Overdose  

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 2.2: Understanding Behavioral Tolerance through Conditioning

Physical and Psychological Dependence

Diagnosing Drug-related Problems: The Health Professional’s Perspective        

Special Circumstances in Drug Abuse        

HEALTH LINE: Effects of Psychoactive Drugs on Pregnant Women and Newborns       

Drugs, Violence, and Crime

Governmental Policy, Regulation, and Laws

PORTRAIT: Pablo Escobar – Formerly Known as the Colombian King of Cocaine

Drug Law Enforcement and Global Politics

HEALTH LINE: Harm Reduction as a National Drug-Abuse Policy


CHAPTER 3:               How Drugs Work in the Body and on the Mind

How Drugs Enter the Body  

How Drugs Exit the Body    

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Ways to Take Drugs: Routes of Administration  

Factors Determining the Behavioral Impact of Drugs      

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 3.1: Understanding Drug Interactions

HEALTH ALERT: Adverse Effects of Drug–Drug and Food–Drug Combinations

Introducing the Nervous System    

Understanding the Brain

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 3.2: Understanding Drugs and Brain Functioning

Understanding the  Neurochemistry of Psychoactive Drugs

Physiological Aspects of Drug-Taking Behavior

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Endorphins, Endocannainoids, and the “Runner’s High”

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 3.3: Understanding Cross-Tolerance and Cross-Dependence

HEALTH LINE: Drug Craving and the Insula of the Brain

Psychological Factors in Drug-Taking Behavior     

PORTRAIT: Nora D. Volkow—A Scientist-General in the War on Drugs


Part Two: Legally Restricted Drugs in Our Society

Chapter 4:              The Major Stimulants: Cocaine and Amphetamines

The History of Cocaine

HEALTH ALERT: Cocaine after Alcohol: The Risk of Cocaethylene Toxicity

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: What Happened to the Coca in Coca-Cola?

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 4.1: Understanding the History of Cocaine

Acute Effects of Cocaine

Chronic Effects of Cocaine

HEALTH ALERT: The Physical Signs of Possible Cocaine Abuse

Medical Uses of Cocaine

How Cocaine Works in the Brain

Present-Day Cocaine Abuse

Patterns of Cocaine Abuse  

Treatment Programs for Cocaine Abuse

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Paco: A Cheap New Form of Cocaine Floods Argentine Slums and Beyond

PORTRAIT: Robert Downey Jr. and Others—Cleaning Up after  Cocaine


DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Crack Babies Revisited: What Are the Effects?

Acute Effects of Amphetamines

Chronic Effects of Amphetamines

Present-Day Patterns of Methamphetamine Abuse

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Methamphetamine and the Heartland of  America

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 4.2: Understanding Patterns of Cocaine and Methamphetamine Abuse

Medical Uses for Amphetamines and Similar Stimulant Drugs

HEALTH LINE: Stimulant Medications as “Smart Pills”

Chapter 5:                 Opioids: Opium, Heroin, and Opioid Pain Medications 

Opium in History

Morphine and the Advent of Heroin

Opioids  in American Society

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 5.1: Understanding the History of Opium and Opioids

Effects on the Mind and the Body

How Opioids Work in the Brain

Patterns of Heroin Abuse    

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 5.2: Understanding the Effects of Administering and Withdrawing Heroin

Heroin Abuse and Society

Treatment for Heroin Abuse

HEALTH ALERT: Sustained-Release Buprenorphine: A New Era in Heroin-Abuse Treatment

Medical Uses of Opioid Drugs

PORTRAIT: David Laffer --- Pharmacy Robber and Killer of Four


Chapter 6:                 LSD and Other Hallucinogens

A Matter of Definition

Classifying Hallucinogens

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Strange Days in Salem: Witchcraft or Hallucinogens?

PORTRAIT: Timothy Leary—Nutty Professor, Visionary, or Simply a Charlatan?

Facts and Fiction about LSD

HEALTH ALERT: Emergency Guidelines for a Bad Trip on LSD

Psilocybin and Other Hallucinogens Related to Serotonin

HEALTH LINE: Bufotenine and the Bufo Toad

Hallucinogens Related to Norepinephrine

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Present-Day Peyotism and the Native American Church

HEALTH ALERT: MDMA Toxicity: The Other Side of Ecstasy

Hallucinogens Related to Acetylcholine

Miscellaneous Hallucinogens

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 6.1: Understanding the Diversity of Hallucinogens

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 6.2: Understanding PCP


CHAPTER 7:               Marijuana

A Matter of Terminology

The History of Marijuana and Hashish

Acute Effects of Marijuana

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 7.1: Understanding the Effects of Marijuana

Effects of Marijuana on the Brain

DRUGS…IN FOCUS: The neurochemical “Yin and Yang” of Cannabis

Chronic Effects of Marijuana

The Gateway Hypothesis

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 7.2: Understanding the Adverse Effects of Chronic Marijuana Abuse

Patterns of Marijuana Smoking

Causes for Concern

HEALTH ALERT: A Synthetic Marijuana called Spice

Medical Marijuana

PORTRAIT: Marcy Dolin --- Marijuana Self-Medicator

The Issues of Decriminalization and Legalization


Part Three:  Legal Drugs in Our Society

Chapter 8:                 Alcohol: Social Beverage/Social Drug

What Makes an Alcoholic Beverage?

Alcohol Use through History

Patterns of Alcohol Consumption Today

HEALTH LINE: Multiple Ways of Getting a Standard Drink

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Visualizing the Pattern of Alcohol Consumption in the United States

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 8.1: Understanding Alcoholic Beverages

The Pharmacology of Alcohol

HEALTH LINE: Gender, Race, and Medication: Factors in Alcohol Metabolism

Effects of Alcohol on the Brain

Acute Physiological Effects

HEALTH ALERT: Emergency Signs and Procedures in Acute Alcohol Intoxication

Acute Behavioral Effects

PORTRAIT: Candace Lightner—Founder of MADD

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Alcohol, Security, and Spectator Sports

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Caffeine, Alcohol, and the Dangers of Caffeinated Alcoholic Drinks

Alcohol and Health Benefits

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 8.2: Understanding the Data from Balanced Placebo Designs

Strategies for Responsible Drinking

HEALTH ALERT: Guidelines for Responsible Drinking


Chapter 9:                 Chronic Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

Alcoholism: Stereotypes, Definitions, and Life Problems

HEALTH LINE: A Self-Administered Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (SMAST)

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 9.1: Understanding the Psychology of Alcoholism

Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence: The Health Professional’s Perspective

Physiological Effects of Chronic Alcohol Use

HEALTH LINE: Alcoholism Screening Instruments in Professional Use

Patterns of Chronic Alcohol Abuse

The Genetics of Alcoholism

The Concept of Alcoholism as a Disease

Approaches to Treatment for Alcoholism

PORTRAIT: Bill W. and Dr. Bob—Founders of Alcoholics Anonymous

HEALTH LINE: Is Controlled Drinking Possible for Alcoholics?

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: The Non-Disease Model of Alcoholism and Other Patterns of Substance Abuse

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 9.2: Understanding Alcoholics Anonymous       

Chronic Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the Workplace


Chapter 10:               Nicotine and Tobacco Use

Tobacco Use through History

Health Concerns and Smoking Behavior

HEALTH LINE: African Americans, Smoking, and Mentholated Cigarettes

The Tobacco Industry Today

What’s in Tobacco?

The Dependence Potential of Nicotine

Health Consequences of Tobacco Use

HEALTH LINE: Visualizing 400,000 to 440,000 Annual Tobacco-Related Deaths

HEALTH ALERT: Signs of Trouble from Smokeless Tobacco

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 10.1: Understanding the Effects of Tobacco Smoking

Patterns of Smoking Behavior and Use of Smokeless Tobacco

PORTRAIT: Sigmund Freud—Nicotine Dependence, Cigars, and Cancer

Quitting Smoking: The Good News and the Bad

HEALTH LINE:  How to Suceed in Quitting Smoking --- By Really Trying


Chapter 11:               Caffeine


DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Why There Are No (Live) Flies in Your Coffee



HEALTH LINE: Chocolate, Flavanols and Cardiovascular Health

PORTRAIT: Milton S. Hershey and the Town Built on Chocolate

Soft Drinks

Caffeine from OTC Drugs and Other Products

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 11.1: Understanding Caffeine Levels in Foods and Beverages

Caffeine as a Drug   

Potential Health Benefits

Potential Health Risks

HEALTH LINE: Coffee, Genes, and Heart Attacks

Dependence, Acute Toxicity, and Medical Applications

Caffeine and Young People A Special Concern

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Energy Shots


Part Four:  Enhancers and Depressants

Chapter 12:               Performance-Enhancing Drugs and Drug Testing in Sports

Drug-Taking Behavior in Sports

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Gene Doping: Disqualified by Your DNA

PORTRAIT: Lance Armstrong: From Honor to Dishonor  

Performance-Enhancing Drug Abuse and Baseball

The Hazards of Anabolic Steroids    296

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Suspension Penalties for Performance-Enhancing Drug Use in Sports

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 12.1: Understanding the Effects of Anabolic Steroids

Patterns of Anabolic Steroid Abuse

HEALTH ALERT: The Symptoms of Steroid Abuse  

Nonsteroid Hormones and Performance-Enhancing Supplements

Nonmedical Use of Stimulant Medication in Baseball

Current Drug-Testing Procedures and Policies

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: THG and the War on Performance-Enhancing Drugs

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 12.2: Understanding Drug Testing

The Social Context of Performance-Enhancing Drugs


Chapter 13:               Depressants and Inhalants


DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Is There Any Truth in “Truth Serum”?

Nonbarbiturate Sedative-Hypnotics

The Development of Antianxiety Drugs


HEALTH ALERT: The Dangers of Rohypnol as a Date-Rape Drug

Nonbenzodiazepine Depressants

A Special Alert: The Risks of GHB

PORTRAIT: Patricia White, GHB, and the “Perfect” Crime

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 13.1: Understanding the Abuse Potential in Drugs

Inhalants through History

Glue, Solvent, and Aerosol Inhalation

HEALTH ALERT: The Signs of Possible Inhalant Abuse

Patterns of Inhalant Abuse

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Resistol and Resistoleros in Latin America

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 13.2: Understanding the History of Inhalants


Part Five:  Medicinal Drugs

Chapter 14:               Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, and Dietary Supplements

The History of Prescription Drug Regulations

Procedures for Approving Prescription Drugs       

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 14.1: Understanding the FDA Approval Process

Are FDA-Approved Drugs Safe?      346

HEALTH LINE: The Potential for Death by Prescription Error

HEALTH LINE: Doctor-Shopping and Prescription Pain Medications

Major OTC Analgesic Drugs  349

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 14.2: Understanding OTC Analgesic Drugs

Other Major Classes of OTC Drugs

The Pharmaceutical Industry Today

Dietary Supplements

PORTRAIT: Ryan Haight and the Ryan Haight Act of 2008

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: What We Know about Nine Herbal Supplements


Chapter 15:               Drugs for Treating Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders

The Biomedical Model

Antipsychotic Drugs and Schizophrenia

The Symptoms of Schizophrenia

HEALTH LINE: Mercury Poisoning: On Being Mad as a Hatter

Drugs Used to Treat Depression

PORTRAIT: The Melancholy President—Abraham Lincoln, Depression, and Those “Little Blue Pills

HEALTH ALERT: SSRI Antidepressants and Elevated Risk of Suicide among Children and Adolescents

Drugs for Other Types of Mental Disorders

CONCEPT CHECK 15.1: Understanding the Biochemistry of Mental Illness


Psychiatric Drugs, Social Policy, and Deinstitutionalization

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Psychiatric Drugs and the Civil Liberties Debate


Part Six:  Prevention and Treatment

Chapter 16:               Substance-Abuse Prevention

Levels of Intervention in Substance-Abuse Prevention

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 16.1: Understanding Levels of Intervention in Substance-Abuse Prevention Programs

Strategies for Substance-Abuse Prevention

HEALTH LINE: The Public Health Model and the Analogy of Infectious Disease Control

PORTRAIT: Dr. A. Thomas McLellan Goes to Washington (briefly)

Lessons from the Past: Prevention Approaches That Have Failed

Hope and Promise: Components of Effective School-Based Prevention Programs

HEALTH LINE: Peer-Refusal Skills: Ten Ways to Make It Easier to Say No

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 16.2: Understanding Primary Prevention and Education

Community-Based Prevention Programs

Family Systems in Primary and Secondary Prevention

DRUGS…IN FOCUS: Substance Use and Abuse among Young Mothers     

Multicultural Issues in Primary and Secondary Prevention

Substance-Abuse Prevention in the Workplace

Yes, You: Substance-Abuse Prevention and the College Student

HEALTH LINE: Alcohol 101 on College Campuses

Substance-Abuse Prevention Information

Summary 400 / Key Terms 401 / Endnotes

POINT/COUNTERPOINT V: Should We Continue to D.A.R.E. or Shouldn’t We?


Chapter 17:               Substance-Abuse Treatment: Strategies for Change

Designing Effective Substance-Abuse Treatment Programs

The Biopsychosocial Model for Substance-Abuse Treatment

Intervention through Incarceration and Other Punitive Measures

DRUGS . . . IN FOCUS: Penalties for Crack versus Penalties for Powder Cocaine: Correcting an Injustice

PORTRAIT: Monsignor William O’Brien—Founder of Daytop Village

Substance-Abuse Treatment in the Workplace

The Personal Journey to Treatment and Recovery

QUICK CONCEPT CHECK 17.1: Understanding the Stages of Change in Substance-Abuse Treatment

The Impact of Family Systems on Treatment and Recovery

HEALTH ALERT: Coping with a Child’s Abuse of Alcohol or Other Drugs: What Parents Should and Should Not Do

Finding the Right Substance-Abuse Treatment Program

Needing versus Receiving Substance-Abuse Treatment

A Final Note: For Those Who Need Help . . .                  



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Published by Pearson (June 26th 2013) - Copyright © 2014