Ergonomics: How to Design for Ease and Efficiency, 2nd edition

  • KHE Kroemer
  • HB Kroemer
  • KE Kroemer-Elbert

Ergonomics: How to Design for Ease and Efficiency

ISBN-13:  9780137524785

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An easy-to-use reference book written by a practicing ergonomics engineer, Ergonomics: How to Design for Ease and Efficincy explores the “why” and “how” of human engineering/ergonomics. KEY TOPICS: Topics include Working Under Water, Home Computer Workstation, Data Input Devices, Effective Training for Safe Lifting, Use of Liftbelts. Deals with Space exploration, Work under water, Scuba diving, New ways to communicate with the computer, Avoiding Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and other RSIs, Lift belts in material handling, Designing for “neutral” posture, scheduling work for circadian rhythms and Strenuous efforts at high altitudes. Addresses issues such as cumulative trauma, back problems (lifting), space exploration, design for the handicapped, computer workstations, and others. MARKET: For readers interested in Human Factors Engineering or Ergonomics.

Table of contents

(NOTE: Each chapter begins with Overview and concludes with Summary and Challenges.)


What Ergonomics Is. What Ergonomics Does. Goals of This Book. How This Book Is Organized. How to Use This Book. The Development of Ergonomics. The Ergonomic Knowledge Base. Sources of Ergonomic Information. Addresses.


1. The Anatomical and Mechanical Structure of the Human Body.

Development of the Human Race. Anthropology and Anthropometry. Box of Samples. How to Get Missing Data. Design Procedures. Human Biomechanics. The Skeletal System. Biomechanical Description of the Body. Human Strength.

2. How the Body Does Its Work.

The Respiratory System. The Circulatory System. The Metabolic System. Assessment of Energy Expenditures at Work. Energy Requirements at Work.

3. How the Mind Works.

Introduction. The “Traditional” and the “Ecological”Concepts. Organization of the Nervous System. Enhancing Performance. Detecting Deception.

4. Human Senses.

Introduction. Body Sensors. Seeing”The Vision Sense. Other Theories of Color Vision. Hearing—The Auditory Sense. Smelling—Olfactory Sense. Tasting—The Gustation Sense. Taste Sensors. Touching—The Cutaneous Senses. Balancing the Body—The Vestibular Sense. Engineering Use of Sensory Capabilities.

5. How the Body Interacts with the Environment.

Thermoregulation of the Human Body. Working in Polluted Air. Working Strenuously at High Altitudes. The Effects of Vibration on the Human Body. Summary of Vibration. Astronauts and “Weightlessness.” Accelerations in Aerospace. Summary of Aerospace Human Engineering. Working and Diving Under Water.

6. Body Rhythms, Work Schedules, and Effects of Alcohol.

Introduction. Female Menstrual Cycle. Circadian Rhythms. Individual Differences. Sleep. Prolonged Hours of Work and Sleep Deprivation. Shiftwork. Shift Systems. Compressed Workweek/Extended Workday. Flextime. Which Shift Systems are Most Suitable? Body Rhythms and ShiftWork: Summary. Effects of Alcohol on Performance. Blood Alcohol Content. Absorption. Elimination of Alcohol. Effects of Alcohol on the Nervous System. Effects of Alcohol on the Senses. Effects of Alcohol on Performance of Industrial Tasks. Effects of Alcohol on Automobile Driving. Effects of Alcohol on Pilots. Effects of Alcohol: Summary.


7. Ergonomic Models, Methods, and Measurements.

Introduction. Models. Types of Models. Ergonomic Models. Methods. Measurements.

8. Designing to Fit the Moving Body.

Moving, Not Staying Still. Suitable Body Motions and Positions at Work. Recording and Evaluating Postures at Work. Designing for the Standing Operator. Designing for the Sitting Operator. Designing for Working Positions Other Than Sitting or Standing. Designing for Foot Operation. Designing for Hand Use. Designing Hand Tools. Design Rules for Hand Tools. Designing for Human Strength. Rules for Designing for Operator Strength. Designing for Vision. Designing to Avoid Overuse Disorders in the Shop and Office. Biomechanical Strains of the Body. Occupational Activities and Related Disorders. Stages of Overuse Disorders and Their Treatment. NonBiomechanical Factors in ODs. Ergonomic Interventions. Research Needs.

9. The Office (Computer) Workstation.

Introduction. Is There a Normal, Healthy, Ideal Posture? Theories of “Healthy”Standing. Theories of “Healthy” Sitting. “Free Posturing.” Ergonomic Design of the Office Workstation.

10. Selection, Design, and Arrangement of Controls and Displays.

Introduction. Controls. Control Selection. Compatibility of Control-Machine Movement. Control Actuation Force or Torque. Control-Effect Relationships. Continuous versus Detent Controls. Standard Practices. Arrangement and Grouping of Controls. Control Design. Foot-Operated Controls. Remote Control Units. Preventing Accidental Activation of Controls. Computer Input Devices. Keys. Displays. Selecting the Display. Visual Displays. Check Displays. Electronic Displays. Location and Arrangement of Displays. Control-Display Assignments. Auditory Displays. Labels and Warnings. Warnings.

11. Handling Loads.

Introduction: Strains Associated with Handling Loads. Assessing Body Capabilities Related to Material Handling. Personnel Training. Personnel Selection by Physical Testing. Ergonomic Design for Load Handling. Activities Other Than Industrial Lifting, Lowering and Carrying.

12. Designing for Special Populations.

Background. Special Designs for Women and Men? Size and Strength. Sensory Abilities. Motor Skills. Coping with Environmental Stress. Cyclical Variations. Task Performance in General. Designing for Pregnant Women. Designing for Children. Designing for the Aging. Changes in Anthropometry. Changes in Biomechanics. Changes in Respiration and Circulation. Changes in Nervous Functions. Changes in Visual Functions. Changes in Hearing. Changes in Somesthetic Sensitivity. Changes in Psychometric Performance. Research Needs. Designing the Home for the Aging. Ergonomic Design for Disabled Persons.

13. Why and How to Do Ergonomics.

Introduction: The Evolution of Ergonomics. Reasons to Use Ergonomics. Micro- and Macroergonomics. How Do We Do Ergonomics? Judging the Efficacy of Ergonomic Interventions. “Improving Human and System Performance, Health, Safety, Comfort, and the Quality of Life.”



Glossary of Terms.


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Published by Pearson (July 11th 2000) - Copyright © 2001