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  5. Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual: A Hands-on Approach

Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual: A Hands-on Approach, 1st edition

  • Melissa Greene
  • Robin Robison
  • Lisa Strong

Published by Pearson (March 6th 2020) - Copyright © 2021

1st edition

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Overview

For the two-semester A&P laboratory course.

 

Get hands-on with this affordable, integrated A&P lab manual

Laboratory Manual for Human Anatomy & Physiology: A Hands-on Approach maximizes learning by using a diverse collection of pre-lab, lab, and post- lab activities, over 100 specially-commissioned photos of anatomical models, and over 50 robust lab videos. Students prepare for labs using a variety of learning modes, such as coloring and labeling activities or watching lab videos. The straightforward, step-by-step lab activities provide concise background information and feature images of anatomical models and cadavers. The variety of anatomical models and cadavers reinforces what students learn from studying actual models in the lab and helps them identify and remember key anatomical structures. The manual is priced to provide a high-quality lab manual with premium digital content at an affordable and reasonable price.  

 

The lab manual incorporates the terminology and much of the artwork used in Erin Amerman’s Human Anatomy & Physiology text, but can accompany any A&P textbook. The lab manual is available in three versions for your students: Main, Cat, and Pig. The Cat and Pig versions are identical to the Main version except that they include seven additional cat dissection and 9 additional pig dissection exercises, respectively, at the back of the lab manual.

 

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Table of contents

Lab Exercise 1: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

 

1A Laboratory Safety

Procedure: Observing and Applying Laboratory Safety Rules

 

1B The Scientific Method

Procedure: Using the Scientific Method to Compare Arm Span and Height

1C Human Body Systems

Procedure: Identifying the Human Body Systems, Organs, and Functions

 

1D Anatomical Position and Directional Terminology

Procedure: Demonstrating Anatomical Position and Using Directional Terminology

 

1E Regional Terminology

Procedure: Using Regional Terminology to Describe Areas of the Body

 

1F Planes of Section

Procedure: Identifying Planes of Section

 

1G Body Cavities, Abdominopelvic Quadrants, Abdominopelvic Regions, and Serous Membranes

Procedure 1: Identifying Major Organs within Body Cavities and Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions

Procedure 2: Understanding the Structure of Serous Membranes

 


Lab Exercise 2: The Chemistry of Life

 

2A The Periodic Table, Atomic Structure, and Chemical Bonds

Procedure 1: Using the Periodic Table to Determine Atomic Number, Atomic Mass, and Number of Subatomic Particles

Procedure 2: Using the Periodic Table to Draw Atomic Structure

Procedure 3: Drawing Chemical Bonds

 

2B Enzymes

Procedure: Determining Enzyme-Substrate Specificity of Lactase on Lactose, Sucrose, and Maltose

 

2C pH

Procedure: Determining the pH of Various Household Chemicals

 

2D Organic Molecules

Procedure 1: Testing for the Presence of Monosaccharaides and Disaccharides

Procedure 2: Testing for the Presence of Starch

Procedure 3: Testing for the Presence of Peptides and Proteins

Procedure 4: Testing for the Presence of Lipid

Procedure 5: Determining the Chemical Composition of Various Foods

Procedure 6: Extracting Human DNA from Cheek Cells

 


Lab Exercise 3: The Cell

 

3A Microscopy

Procedure 1: Exploring the Parts of a Compound Light Microscope

Procedure 2: Calculating Total Magnification

Procedure 3: Focusing a Compound Light Microscope

Procedure 4: Estimating the Diameter of the Microscope Field

Procedure 5: Determining Depth of Field

Procedure 6: Working with a Dissecting Microscope

 

3B Cell Structure

Procedure 1: Identifying Cellular Organelles and Structures

Procedure 2: Preparing a Wet Mount and Observing Cheek Cells

Procedure 3: Observing Various Types of Cells

 

3C Membrane Function

Procedure 1: Examining the Effects of Temperature on the Rate of Diffusion

Procedure 2: Observing Diffusion across a Selectively Permeable Membrane

Procedure 3: Examining the Effect of Tonicity on Osmosis

Procedure 4: Examining the Effects of Particle Size on Filtration

 

3D The Cell Cycle

Procedure: Identifying the Stages of the Cell Cycle and Mitosis

 

3E PhysioEx™ Activities

PEx Activity 1: Simulating Dialysis (Simple Diffusion)

PEx Activity 2: Simulated Facilitated Diffusion

PEx Activity 3: Simulating Osmotic Pressure

PEx Activity 4: Simulating Filtration

PEx Activity 5: Simulating Active Transport

 


Lab Exercise 4: Histology

 

4A Epithelial Tissue

Procedure: Examining Epithelial Tissue

 

4B Connective Tissue

Procedure: Examining Connective Tissues

 

4C Muscle Tissue

Procedure: Examining Muscle Tissue

 

4D Nervous Tissue

Procedure: Examining Nervous Tissue

 


Lab Exercise 5: The Integumentary System

 

5A The Skin

Procedure 1: Identifying Layers and Structures of the Skin

Procedure 2: Identifying Fingerprint Patterns

 

5B Accessory Structures

Procedure 1: Examining Hair Structure

Procedure 2: Examining Nail Structure

Procedure 3: Comparing Skin Glands

 


Lab Exercise 6: Bones and Bone Tissue

 

6A Gross Anatomy of Bone

Procedure 1: Identifying Bones Based on Shape

Procedure 2: Identifying the Parts of a Typical Long Bone

 

6B Microscopic Bone Structure

Procedure 1: Examining Microscopic Structure of Bone

Procedure 2: Examining Bone Matrix

 


Lab Exercise 7: The Skeletal System

 

7A Overview of the Skeletal System

Procedure 1: Identifying Major Bones of the Skeletal System

Procedure 2: Understanding Terminology Associated with Bone Markings

 

7B The Skull

Procedure 1: Identifying the Bones and Bone Markings of the Adult Skull

Procedure 2: Examining the Fetal Skull

 

7C The Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage

Procedure 1: Identifying the Bones and Bone Markings of the Vertebral Column

Procedure 2: Identifying the Bones and Bone Markings of the Thoracic Cage

 

7D The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

Procedure 1: Identifying the Bones and Bone Markings of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

 

7E The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb

Procedure: Identifying the Bones and Bone Markings of the Pelvic and Lower Limb

 


Lab Exercise 8: Articulations

 

8A Classifications of Joints

Procedure 1: Identifying Joints

Procedure 2: Identifying the Components of a Synovial Joint

 

8B Synovial Joints

Procedure 1: Classifying Synovial Joints

Procedure 2: Demonstrating Synovial Joint Movements

Procedure 3: Examining the Elbow, Knee, Shoulder, and Hip Joints

 

 

Lab Exercise 9: The Muscular System

 

9A Overview of Skeletal Muscles

Procedure: Identifying the Major Skeletal Muscles

 

9B Muscles of the Head, Neck, and Trunk

Procedure: Identifying the Muscles of the Head, Neck, and Trunk

 

9C Muscles That Move the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

Procedure: Identifying the Muscles That Move the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

 

9D Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb

Procedure: Identifying the Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb

 

9E Build a Muscle

Procedure: Build a Muscle

 


Lab Exercise 10: Muscle Tissue and Physiology

 

10A Overview of Muscle Tissue

Procedure: Identifying the Three Types of Muscle Tissue

 

10B Structure and Function of Skeletal Muscle Fibers

Procedure: Identifying the Structures of a Skeletal Muscle Fiber

 

10C Skeletal Muscle Contraction and Relaxation

Procedure 1: Understanding Skeletal Muscle Contraction and Relaxation

Procedure 2: Observing Skeletal Muscle Contraction Using Glycerinated Muscle

 

10D Isotonic and Isometric Contractions

Procedure: Demonstrating Isotonic and Isometric Contractions

 

10E Muscle Fatigue

Procedure: Demonstrating Muscle Fatigue

 

10F PhysioEx™ Activities

PEx Activity 1: The Muscle Twitch and the Latent Period

PEx Activity 2: The Effect of Stimulus Voltage on Skeletal Muscle Contraction

PEx Activity 3: The Effect of Stimulus Frequency on Skeletal Muscle Contraction

PEx Activity 4: Tetanus in Isolated Skeletal Muscle

PEx Activity 5: Fatigue in Isolated Skeletal Muscle

PEx Activity 6: Skeletal Muscle Length-Tension Relationship

PEx Activity 7: Isotonic Contractions and the Load-Velocity Relationship

 

 

Lab Exercise 11: Introduction to the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue

 

11A Nervous Tissue

Procedure 1: Identifying the Components of Nervous Tissue

Procedure 2: Exploring the Anatomy of Neurons and Neuroglia

 

11B Electrophysiology of Neurons

Procedure: Understanding Electrophysiology of Neurons

 

11C Neuronal Synapses

Procedure 1: Comparing Electrical and Chemical Synapses

Procedure 2: Understanding Chemical Synaptic Transmission

 

11D PhysioEx™  Activities

PEx Activity 1: The Resting Membrane Potential

PEx Activity 2: Receptor Potential

PEx Activity 3: The Action Potential: Threshold

PEx Activity 4: The Action Potential: Importance of Voltage-Gated Na+ Channels

PEx Activity 5: The Action Potential: Measuring Its Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods

PEx Activity 6: The Action Potential: Coding for Stimulus Intensity

PEx Activity 7: The Action Potential: Conduction Velocity

PEx Activity 8: Chemical Synaptic Transmission and Neurotransmitter Release

PEx Activity 9: The Action Potential: Putting It All Together

 


Lab Exercise 12: The Central Nervous System

 

12A The Brain

Procedure1: Identifying the Major Structures of the Human Brain and Their Functions

Procedure 2: Dissecting a Preserved Sheep Brain

 

12B The Spinal Cord

Procedure: Examining Spinal Cord Anatomy

 

12C Electroencephalography

Procedure: Recording an EEG and Identifying Brain Waves

 


Lab Exercise 13: The Peripheral Nervous System

 

13A Cranial Nerves

Procedure 1: Identifying the Cranial Nerves and Their Functions

Procedure 2: Testing the Response of Cranial Nerves

Procedure 3: Identifying Cranial Nerves on a Preserved Sheep Brain

 

13B Spinal Nerves

Procedure: Identifying the Spinal Nerves and Their Functions

 

13C Sensation

Procedure 1: Identifying Sensory Receptors in the Skin

Procedure 2: Determining the Size of a Receptive Field

 

13D Reflexes

Procedure: Demonstrating Reflex Arcs

 


Lab Exercise 14: The Autonomic Nervous System and Homeostasis

 

14A Anatomy of the ANS

Procedure: Identifying Components of the Autonomic Nervous System

 

14B Physiology of the ANS

Procedure: Examining the Effect of Stress on the ANS

 


Lab Exercise 15: The Special Senses


15A Overview of the Special Senses

Procedure: Identifying Stimuli Detected and Special Sense Receptors Used


15B Olfaction and Gustation

Procedure 1: Examining the Structures of Olfaction and Gustation

Procedure 2: Examining the Relationship between Smell and Taste


15C Anatomy of the Eye

Procedure 1: Examining the Structures of the Eye

Procedure 2: Dissecting the Preserved Eye


15D Visual Tests and Demonstrations

Procedure 1: Performing the Visual Acuity Test Using the Snellen Eye Chart

Procedure 2: Conducting an Astigmatism Test

Procedure 3: Performing the Near Point of Accommodation Test

Procedure 4: Testing for Color Blindness

Procedure 5: Demonstrating the Pupillary Reflex

Procedure 6: Demonstrating a Blind Spot


15E Anatomy of the Ear

Procedure: Examining the Structures of the Ear


15F Hearing and Equilibrium Tests

Procedure 1: Performing the Auditory Acuity Test

Procedure 2: Performing the Sound Localization Test

Procedure 3: Performing the Weber Test

Procedure 4: Performing the Rinne Test

Procedure 5: Performing the Bárány Test

Procedure 6: Performing the Romberg Test

 


Lab Exercise 16: The Endocrine System

 

16A Overview of the Endocrine System

Procedure: Understanding the Endocrine System

 

16B Anatomy of the Endocrine System

Procedure 1: Examining the Anatomy of the Hypothalamus, Pituitary, and Pineal Glands

Procedure 2: Examining the Anatomy of the Thyroid, Parathyroid, and Thymus

Procedure 3: Examining the Anatomy of the Pancreas

Procedure 4: Examining the Anatomy of the Adrenal Glands

Procedure 5: Examining the Anatomy of the Gonads

 

16C PhysioEx™  Activities

PEx Activity 1: Metabolism and Thyroid Hormone

PEx Activity 2: Plasma Glucose, Insulin, and Diabetes Mellitus

PEx Activity 3: Hormone Replacement Therapy

PEx Activity 4: Measuring Cortisol and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

 


Lab Exercise 17: The Cardiovascular System I: The Heart

 

17A Structure of the Heart

Procedure 1: Identifying the Anatomy of the Heart

Procedure 2: Dissecting a Preserved Heart

 

17B Blood Flow Pathway through the Heart

Procedure: Tracing the Pathway of Blood through the Heart

 

17C Cardiac Muscle Tissue

Procedure: Identifying the Components of Cardiac Muscle Tissue

 

17D The Cardiac Cycle

Procedure 1: Recording Electrical Activity in the Heart

Procedure 2: Auscultating Heart Sounds

 

17E PhysioEx™  Activities

PEx Activity 1: Investigating the Refractory Period of Cardiac Muscle

PEx Activity 2: Examining the Effect of the Vagus Nerve Stimulation

PEx Activity 3: Examining the Effect of Temperature on Heart Rate

PEx Activity 4: Examining the Effect of Chemical Modifiers on Heart Rate

PEx Activity 5: Examining the Effects of Various Ions on Heart Rate

 


Lab Exercise 18: The Cardiovascular System II: The Blood Vessels

 

18A Blood Vessel Anatomy

Procedure: Identifying Blood Vessels and Their Anatomy

 

18B Major Arteries and Veins

Procedure 1: Identifying Major Arteries and Veins

Procedure 2: Blood Flow Tracing


18C Pulse Palpation and Pulse Rate

Procedure: Palpating Pulse and Calculating Pulse Rate Before and After Exercise

 

18D Arterial Blood Pressure

Procedure: Measuring Blood Pressure Before and After Exercise


18E Ankle-Brachial Index

Procedure: Determining the Ankle-Brachial Index Using a Doppler Ultrasound Device

 

18F PhysioEx™  Activities

PEx Activity 1: Studying the Effect of Blood Vessel Radius on Blood Flow Rate

PEx Activity 2: Studying the Effect of Blood Viscosity on Blood Flow Rate

PEx Activity 3: Studying the Effect of Blood Vessel Length on Blood Flow Rate

PEx Activity 4: Studying the Effect of Blood Pressure on Blood Flow Rate

PEx Activity 5: Studying the Effect of Blood Vessel Radius on Pump Activity

PEx Activity 6: Studying the Effect of Stroke Volume on Pump Activity

PEx Activity 7: Compensation in Pathological Cardiovascular Conditions

 


Lab Exercise 19: Blood

 

19A Formed Elements of Blood

Procedure 1: Identifying the Formed Elements of Blood

Procedure 2: Performing a Differential White Blood Cell Count

 

19B Blood Disorders

Procedure 1: Identifying Blood Disorders and Parasitic Infections

Procedure 2: Identifying Vessel Abnormalities and Blood Clots

 

19C Blood Typing

Procedure 1: Determining Blood Types Using Simulated Blood

Procedure 2: Determining Blood Type Compatibility

 

19D PhysioEx™  Activities

PEx Activity 1: Hematocrit Determination

PEx Activity 2: Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate

PEx Activity 3: Hemoglobin Determination

PEx Activity 4: Blood Typing

PEx Activity 5: Blood Cholesterol

 


Lab Exercise 20: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

 

20A Overview of the Lymphatic System

Procedure 1: Identifying the Tissues and Organs of the Lymphatic System

Procedure 2: Tracing Lymph Flow

Procedure 3: Examining a Lymphatic Vessel

 

20B Anatomy of the Lymphatic System

Procedure: Examining Lymphatic Tissue and Organs

 

20C Immunity

Procedure: Testing for the Presence of the Zika Virus Using a Simulated ELISA Kit

 

20D PhysioEx™  Activities

PEx Activity 1: Using Direct Fluorescent Antibody Technique to Test for Chlamydia

PEx Activity 2: Comparing Samples with Ouchterlony Double Diffusion

PEx Activity 3: Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

PEx Activity 4: Western Blotting Technique

 


Lab Exercise 21: The Respiratory System

 

21A Overview of the Respiratory System

Procedure: Identifying the Organs of the Respiratory System

 

21B Anatomy of the Respiratory System

Procedure 1: Examining the Structures and Organs of the Upper Respiratory System

Procedure 2: Examining the Structures and Organs of the Lower Respiratory System

Procedure 3: Comparing Healthy Lung Tissue to Damaged Lung Tissue

 

21C Pulmonary Ventilation

Procedure 1: Understanding Pulmonary Ventilation

Procedure 2: Using a Handheld Spirometer

 

21D Control of Breathing

Procedure: Demonstrating How Various Factors Affect Breathing

 

21E PhysioEx™  Activities

PEx Activity 1: Measuring Respiratory Volumes and Calculating Capacities

PEx Activity 2: Comparative Spirometry

PEx Activity 3: Effect of Surfactant and Intrapleural Pressure on Respiration

 


Lab Exercise 22: The Digestive System


22A Overview of the Digestive System

Procedure 1: Identifying the Organs of the Digestive System

Procedure 2: Examining the Histology of the Alimentary Canal


22B Anatomy of the Digestive System

Procedure 1: Examining the Oral Cavity and Pharynx

Procedure 2: Examining the Esophagus and Stomach

Procedure 3: Examining the Intestines

Procedure 4: Examining the Accessory Organs of the Digestive System


22C Nutrient Digestion

Procedure 1: Investigating Amylase Activity

Procedure 2: Investigating Pepsin Activity

Procedure 3: Investigating Lipase Activity


22D PhysioEx™  Activities

PEx Activity 1: Assessing Starch Digestion by Salivary Amylase

PEx Activity 2: Exploring Amylase Substrate Specificity

PEx Activity 3: Assessing Pepsin Digestion of Protein

PEx Activity 4: Assessing Lipase Digestion of Fat

 


Lab Exercise 23: Metabolism and Nutrition


23A Overview of Metabolism

Procedure: Examining the Effects of Exercise on Cellular Respiration


23B Nutrition and Body Mass

Procedure 1: Calculating Metabolic Rate

Procedure 2: Calculating Body Mass Index

 


Lab Exercise 24: The Urinary System


24A Overview of the Urinary System

Procedure: Identifying Organs of the Urinary System


24B Anatomy of the Urinary System

Procedure 1: Examining the Anatomy of the Kidney

Procedure 2: Dissecting a Preserved Kidney

Procedure 3: Identifying the Blood Vessels of a Kidney

Procedure 4: Identifying the Components of a Nephron

Procedure 5: Examining the Anatomy of the Urinary Tract


24C Physiology of the Urinary System

Procedure 1: Understanding the Big Picture of Renal Physiology

Procedure 2:  Tracing the Flow of Fluid through the Urinary System

Procedure 3: Performing a Urinalysis


24D PhysioEx™  Activities

PEx Activity 1: The Effect of Arteriole Radius on Glomerular Filtration

PEx Activity 2: The Effect of Pressure on Glomerular Filtration

PEx Activity 3: Renal Response to Altered Blood Pressure

PEx Activity 4: Solute Gradients and Their Impact on Urine Concentration

PEx Activity 5: Reabsorption of Glucose via Carrier Proteins

PEx Activity 6: The Effect of Hormones on Urine Formation

 


Lab Exercise 25: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Homeostasis

 

25A Homeostasis

Procedure: Examining the Effects of Buffers

 

25B PhysioEx™  Activities

PEx Activity 1: Hyperventilation

PEx Activity 2: Rebreathing

PEx Activity 3: Renal Responses to Respiratory Acidosis and Respiratory Alkalosis

PEx Activity 4: Respiratory Responses to Metabolic Acidosis

 


Lab Exercise 26: The Reproductive System

 

26A Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System

Procedure 1: Examining Male Reproductive System Organs and Structures

Procedure 2: Tracing Sperm from Production to Ejaculation

 

26B Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System

Procedure: Examining Female Reproductive Organs and Structures

 

26C Physiology of the Reproductive Systems

Procedure 1: Identifying the Stages of Meiosis

Procedure 2: Examining Sperm

Procedure 3:  Understanding Hormonal Regulation of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles

Procedure 4: Examining Ovarian Follicles

 


Lab Exercise 27: Human Development

 

27A Overview of Human Development

Procedure: Identifying Events during Prenatal Development

 

27B Pregnancy and Childbirth

Procedure: Identifying Events during Childbirth



Cat Dissection Exercises

1.     The Muscular System of the Cat

2.     The Spinal Nerves of the Cat

3.     The Respiratory System of the Cat

4.     The Digestive System of the Cat

5.     The Cardiovascular System of the Cat

6.     The Urinary System of the Cat

7.     The Reproductive System of the Cat



Pig Dissection Exercises

1.     Examining Surface Anatomy and Preparing the Fetal Pig for Dissection

2.     Skeletal Muscles of the Fetal Pig

3.     Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves of the Fetal Pig

4.     Endocrine System of the Fetal Pig

5.     Cardiovascular System of the Fetal Pig

6.     Digestive System of the Fetal Pig

7.     Respiratory System of the Fetal Pig

8.     Urinary System of the Fetal Pig

9.     Reproductive System of the Fetal Pig

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