### What's included

## Overview

This text presents a throrough introduction to communication systems, with and emphasis on engineering aspects of signal waveform design and modulation. Its presentation skillfully connects development of mathematical principles to examples from current operating communication systems. Most importantly, explanations and exercises are carefully motivated with practical applications.

Features

- Explanations of practical communication systems presented in the context of theory.
- Over 300 excellent illustrations help students visualize difficult concepts and demonstrate practical applications.
- Over 120 worked-out examples promote mastery of new concepts, plus over 130 drill problems with answers extend these principles.
- A wide variety of problems, all new to this edition -- including realistic applications, computer-based problems, and design problems.
- Coverage of current topics of interest, such as fiber optics, spread spectrum systems and Integrated Digital Services Networks.

## Table of contents

**1. Introduction.**

**2. Orthogonality and Signal Representations.**

Signals and Systems. Classification of Signals. Classification of Systems. Signals and Vectors. Orthogonal Functions. Choice of a Set of Orthogonal Functions. The Exponential Fourier Series. Complex Signals and Representations. The Trigonometric Fourier Series Representation. Extension by Periodicity. Parseval's Theorem for Power Signals. The Frequency Transfer Function. Steady-State Response to Periodic Signals. Harmonic Generation. The Fourier Spectrum and Examples. Numerical Computation of Fourier Coefficients. Effects of Alias Terms. Singularity Functions. Impulse Response. Convergence of the Fourier Series. Summary. Problems.

**3. The Fourier Transform and Applications.**

Representation of an Aperiodic Function Over the Entire Real Line. The Spectral Density Function. Existence of the Fourier Transform. Parseval's Theorem for Energy Signals. Some Fourier Transforms Involving Impulse Functions. Properties of the Fourier Transform. Some Convolution Relationships. Graphic Interpretation of Convolution. Filter Characteristics of Linear Systems. Transversal Filters. Bandwidth of a System. Requirements for Distortionless Transmission. Time Response of Filters. Minimum Time-Bandwidth Product. The Sampling Theorem. Aliasing Effects in Sampling. The Discrete Fourier Transform. The Fast Fourier Transform. Summary. Problems.

**4. Spectral Density and Correlation.**

Energy Spectral Density. Power Spectral Density. Time-Averaged Noise Representations. Correlation Functions. Some Properties of Correlation Functions. Correlation Function for Finite-Energy Signals. Band-Limited White Noise. Summary. Problems.

**5. Amplitude Modulation.**

Amplitude Modulation: Suppressed Carrier. Amplitude Modulation: Large Carrier (AM). Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM). Single-Sideband (SSB) Modulation. Vestigial-Sideband (VSB) Modulation. A Time-Representation of Bandpass Noise. Signal-to-Noise Ratios in AM Reception. Propagation Effects. Comparison of Various AM Systems. Summary. Problems.

**6. Angle Modulation.**

FM and PM. Narrowband FM. Wideband FM. Average Power in Angle-Modulated Waveforms. Phase Modulation. Generation of Wideband FM Signals. Demodulation of FM Signals. Signal-to-Noise Ratios in FM Reception. Threshold Effect in FM. Signal-to-Noise Improvement Using Deemphasis. Summary. Problems.

**7. Pulse Modulation.**

Pulse-Amplitude Modulation (PAM). Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM). Pulse Shaping and Intersymbol Interference. Other Types of Analog Pulse Modulation: PWM and PPM. Signal-to-Noise Ratios in Analog Pulse Modulation. Pulse-Code Modulation (PCM). Fiber Optic Communication Systems. Use of Parity and Redundancy in PCM. Time-Division Multiplexing of PCM Signals. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). The Matched Filter. Matched-Filter Codeword Detection. Pseudonoise (PN) Sequences. Summary. Problems.

**8. Probability and Random Variables.**

Probability. Conditional Probability and Statistical Independence. The Random Variable and Cumulative Distribution Function. The Probability Density Function. Statistical Averages. Some Probability Distributions. The Histogram. Transformations of Random Variables. Joint and Conditional Density Functions. Correlation Between Random Variables. The Bivariate Gaussian Distribution. Random Processes. Autocorrelation and Power Spectra. Numerical Computation of Power Spectra. Summary. Problems.

**9. Information and Digital Transmission.**

A Measure of Information. Channel Capacity. Ideal Demodulator Detection Gain. Quantization Noise. Probability of Error in Transmission. S/N Performance of PCM. Delta Modulation and DPCM. Error Analysis of PCM Repeaters. Power Spectral Densities of Data Waveforms. Partial-Response Signaling. Equalization. M-ary Signaling. Coding for Reliable Communication. Summary. Problems.

**10. Digital Modulation.**

Amplitude-Shift Keying (ASK). Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK). Phase-Shift Keying (PSK). Comparison of Binary Digital Modulation Systems. Direct-Sequencing Spread Spectrum Systems. Quadrature AM (QAM) and Quaternary PSK (QPSK). Continuous-Phase FSK (CPFSK) and Minimum-Shift. Keying (MSK). M-ary Orthogonal FSK. Frequency-Hopping (FH) Spread Spectrum Systems. M-ary PSK. Amplitude-Phase Keying (APK). Comparison of Digital Modulation Systems. Representation of Digital Waveforms. Optimum Detection Algorithms. Summary. Problems.

**Appendix A: Selected Mathematical Tables.**

**Appendix B: Decibels.**

**Appendix C: Broadcast Frequency Bands.**

**Appendix D: Commercial Television Transmission.**

**Appendix E: Telephone Channels.**

**Appendix F: Some Commercial Preemphasis/Deemphasis Systems.**

**Appendix G: A Table of Bessel Functions.**

**Appendix H: Stereo AM.**

**Appendix I: A Table of Gaussian Probabilities.**

**Index.**

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