Published by Pearson (November 19th 2010) - Copyright © 2011
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Communicating about student achievement requires accurate, consistent and meaningful grades.
Educators interested in examining and improving grading practices should ask the following questions:
• Am I confident that students in my classroom receive consistent, accurate and meaningful grades that support learning?
• Am I confident that the grades I assign students accurately reflect my school or district’s published performance standards and desired learning outcomes?
In many schools, the answers to these questions often range from "not very" to "not at all." When that’s the case, grades are "broken" and teachers and schools need a "repair kit" to fix them. A Repair Kit for Grading: 15 Fixes for Broken Grades, 2/e gives teachers and administrators 15 ways to make the necessary repairs.
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Table of contents
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Setting the Stage
Purpose(s) for Grades
Objectivity and Professional Judgment
The 15 Fixes
Chapter 2 Fixes for Practices That Distort Achievement
Fix 1 Don’t include student behaviors (effort, participation, adherence to class rules, etc.) in grades; include only achievement.
Fix 2 Don’t reduce marks on “work” submitted late; provide support for the learner.
Fix 3 Don’t give points for extra credit or use bonus points; seek only evidence that more work has resulted in a higher level of achievement.
Fix 4 Don’t punish academic dishonesty with reduced grades; apply other consequences and reassess to determine actual level of achievement.
Fix 5 Don’t consider attendance in grade determination; report absences separately.
Fix 6 Don’t include group scores in grades; use only individual achievement evidence.
Chapter 3 Fixes for Low-Quality or Poorly Organized Evidence
Fix 7 Don’t organize information in grading records by assessment methods or simply summarize into a single grade; organize and report evidence by standards/learning goals.
Fix 8 Don’t assign grades using inappropriate or unclear performance standards; provide clear descriptions of achievement expectations.
Fix 9 Don’t assign grades based on a student’s achievement compared to other students; compare each student’s performance to preset standards.
Fix 10 Don’t rely on evidence gathered using assessments that fail to meet standards of quality; rely only on quality assessments.
Chapter 4 Fixes for Inappropriate Grade Calculation
Fix 11 Don’t rely only on the mean; consider other measures of central tendency and use professional judgment.
Fix 12 Don’t include zeros in grade determination when evidence is missing or as punishment; use alternatives, such as reassessing to determine real achievement, or use “I” for Incomplete or Insufficient Evidence.
Chapter 5 Fixes to Support Learning
Fix 13 Don’t use information from formative assessments and practice to determine grades; use only summative evidence.
Fix 14 Don’t summarize evidence accumulated over time when learning is developmental and will grow with time and repeated opportunities; in those instances, emphasize more recent achievement.
Fix 15 Don’t leave students out of the grading process. Involve students; they can—and should—play key roles in assessment and grading that promote achievement.
Chapter 6 Summary
Appendix: Discussion Guide
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