Research Techniques in Human Engineering, 1st edition

  • Jon Weimer

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A primer on the research issues and techniques for each human factors subdiscipline, this book brings together the works of some of the best human factors researchers, from Wickens to Willeges and from Boehm-Davis to Mital. KEY TOPICS: Each of the fourteen chapters, covering a range of topics from consumer products, to medical devices, to military systems, is written by a noted expert in the area, and is a brief tutorial on the research issues, techniques, and apparatus used when conducting research in a particular discipline. MARKET: For researchers in the field of human engineering.

Table of contents

(NOTE: Biographies and References follows each chapter).

1. The Evolution of Human Engineering: A Selected Review.

1900-1920. 1920-1940. 1940-1960. 1960-Present. Where Are We Going?

2. Developing a Research Project.

Where Do I Start? Basic Human Engineering Research. Applied Human Engineering Research. Finding a Problem. Filling a Gap in Existing Research. Resolving Contradictory Experimental Results. Explaining the Occurrence of an Unexplained Fact. Reading for Problems. Turning a Problem Into a Testable Hypothesis. Some Reasons for Problems that Aren't Testable. Conducting the Experiment. Threats to Research Validity. Threats to Internal Validity. Threats to External Validity. Summary. Suggestions for Further Reading.

3. Review of Experimental Design.

Introduction. Stages in Experimental Research. Stage 1: Problem Definition. Stage 2: Planning. Stage 3: Conduct of Research. Stage 4: Data Analysis. Stage 5: Interpretation. Some Experimental Designs. Two Group Designs. Multiple Group Designs. Data Reduction Designs. Sequential Experimentation. Conclusion.

4. Usability Testing.

Usability. History. Rationale. Conducting a Usability Test. Error Analysis. Test Subjects. Who are the users? How many? Tools of the Trade. Keystroke records. Video Records. Eye Movement Tracking Think Aloud Protocols. User Surveys and Checklists. Assessing Costs and Benefits. Contextual Research. Concluding Remarks. Appendix 4-1: Sample User Profile. Appendix 4-2: Blank User Profile Worksheet. Appendix 4-3: Selecting an Eye Tracker.

5. Aerospace Techniques.

Introduction. Research Domains. Flight Control. Procedures. Pilot Judgment and Decision Making. Crew Interactions and Cockpit Resource Management. States Experienced in Pilot Performance. Influences on Operator Performance. Research Methods. The Experimental Method. Protocol Analysis. Surveys. Incident Analysis. Accident Reports. Modeling Literature Reviews. Research Methodologies in Consort. Statistical Inference. Summary.

6. Aging Techniques.

Introduction. Who Are Older People? Research Issues. Which Characteristics of Older People Are of Interest. Age-Related Changes in Sensory Functioning. Age-Related Changes in Psychomotor Functioning. Age-Related Changes in Anthropometry and Physical Function. Age-Related Changes in Cognitive and Intellectual Functioning. Age-related changes in motivation and attitudes/beliefs. Research Design. Stratified Designs. Longitudinal Designs. Methods for Studying the Effects of Aging Useful General References on Aging.

7. Automotive Techniques.

Perspective. Introduction. Field Surveys and Evaluations. Clinics. Focus Groups. Mall/Licensing Office Surveys. General Laboratory Studies. Secondary Control Evaluation. Response Time to Displays. Rear Lighting Design. Ingress/Egress, Trunk, and Underhood Access. Driver Anthropometry Studies. Component Evaluation - Seat Comfort. Computer Testbeds-Rapid Prototyping of Driver Interfaces. Specialized Laboratory Studies. Thermal Comfort. Vehicle Sound Measurement. Crash Tests. Driving Simulation. Advice and Comments. Proving Grounds Experiments. Advice and Comments. Experiments on Open Roads. Individual Cars With No or Minimal Instrumentation. Instrumented Cars. Operational Field Tests. Advice and Comments. Lessons from My Experience. Which Method is Best? Maintain an Automotive Context. Collect Data on the Road When Possible. Test Drivers of All Ages. Videotape Participant Interactions. Closing Remarks. Suggestions For Further Reading.

8. Communication Systems Techniques.

Introduction. Telecommunications Equipment and Service. Categories of Users. End Users. Expert Users. Special Usability Attributes Usability Principles as Applied to Telecommunications. Usability Methodologies as Applied to Telecommunications. Special Usability Methods Speech Quality. Telecommunications Network Transmission Objectives. Text-To-Speech Quality Measurements. Measurement of Speech Intelligibility Automatic Speech Recognition.Interactive Voice Response. Simple Voice Telephony Services. Distinctive Sounds for Telephone Tone Ringers. Additional Telephone Design Issues. Complex Voice Telephony. Usability. Evaluation of Emerging Technologies. Video Communications. Multimedia Communications. Summary of Methodologies. The Future. Additional Readings in Telecommunications.

9. Consumer Products Techniques.

Introduction. Nature of Consumer Products Research. Informal Techniques. Focus Groups. The "Rapid Fire" Review Technique. Voice of the Customer. One-Person Research. Formal Techniques. One Person Research. Two-Person Research. The Reality of Usability Testing. How to Get Buy-in from Management. Appendix.Typical Screener.

10. Human-Computer Interaction Techniques.

Introduction. Scope of the Chapter. Hardware. Major Research Issues. Anthropometry Measures and Methods. Human Performance Measures and Methods. Software Interface. Major Research Issues. Measuring User Interface Effectiveness. Issues in Evaluating User Interface Effectiveness Users. Individual Difference Variables. Methodological Approaches. Software. Major Research Issues. Measures Computed from the Software. Measures Computed from Human Performance. Methodological Approach Summary. Issues For Further Research.

11. Industrial Ergonomics.

Industrial Ergonomics and Its Scope. Scope of This Chapter. The Nature of Research. Experimental Design. Experimental Variables Measurement of Experimental Variables. Types of Human Strengths. Electromyography (EMG). Joint Angles and Body Posture. Measurement of Body Size Parameters. Heart Rate. Oxygen Consumption. Core Temperature. Sound Pressure Level. Illumination. Vibration. Instrumentation. Human Strengths Joint Angles and Body Measurements. Heart Rate. Oxygen Consumption. Sound Level. Illumination. Core Temperature. Vibration. Major Research Issues. Human Strengths. Hand Tools. Anthropometry. Noise. Illumination. Musculoskeletal Injuries.

12. Medical Techniques.

Introduction. Human Factors in Health Care Quo Vadis? Health Care Personnel Shortages. Shortcomings in Medical Education. Medical Information and Communication System Deficiencies. Diagnostic and Treatment Equipment Deficiencies. Assessment of Medical Procedures on Patient Performance. Health Care Technology Assessment. The Methods of Technology Assessment. Technology Assessment and Ergonomics Practice. Summary. Resources. Public and Private Organizations. Research in Progress Publications. Additional Information. Biography.

13. Military Systems Techniques.

Overview. The Aircraft Carrier. Rapid Deployment Forces. Uniqueness of the Military. Systems Considerations. Personnel/Selection Considerations. Training Considerations. Military Personnel. Funding of Human Factor Engineering Related Activities. Human Factor Engineering's Areas of Responsibility. Support for a Human Factors Engineering Technical Group. Development of Specifications and Standards. Crew System Ergonomics Information Analysis Center. System Development. Selected Systems. Test and Evaluation. Statistical and Methodological Issues. Maintenance. HFE Tools/Techniques Developed/Utilized. Catalogs/Integration of Tools. Questionnaires, Surveys, Interviews, and Protocol Analysis. Operator Workload (OWL) Measurement. Performance Test Batteries. Simulation. Environmental Effects. Sustained Operations. Acceleration. Decision Making Under Stress. Use of Human Subjects in the Military. Women in the Military. Opportunities for Involvement in DOD Programs. Future Directions of Military HFE. Simulation. Modeling. Workload/Situational Awareness. Automation. Expert Systems. Personnel Utilization. Maintenance.

14. Training Effectiveness Techniques.

Overview. Training Effectiveness. What is Training Effectiveness? The Nature of Training Effectiveness Research. Individual Characteristics. Organizational Characteristics. Motivation. Training Program. Transfer of Training. Measures Used to Assess Training Effectiveness. Example of a Training Effectiveness Measures Study. Summary. The Training Research Tool Box. Theory. Measurement. Statistics. Experimental Design. Odds & Ends Issues. Conclusion. Appendix 14-1. Appendix 14-2. Appendix 14-3. Index.

Published by Pearson (February 14th 1995) - Copyright © 1995