SDN and NFV Simplified: A Visual Guide to Understanding Software Defined Networks and Network Function Virtualization, 1st edition

  • Jim Doherty

SDN and NFV Simplified: A Visual Guide to Understanding Software Defined Networks and Network Function Virtualization

ISBN-13:  9780134306407

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A Visual Guide to Understanding Software Defined Networks and Network Function Virtualization


The simple, visual, at-a-glance guide to SDN and NFV: Core concepts, business drivers, key technologies, and more!


SDN (Software Defined Networks) and NFV (Network Function Virtualization) are today’s hottest areas of networking. Many executives, investors, sales professionals, and marketers need a solid working understanding of these technologies, but most books on the subject are written specifically for network engineers and other technical experts. SDN and NFV Simplified fills that gap, offering highly visual, “at-a-glance” explanations of SDN, NFV, and their underlying virtualizations.


Built around an illustrated, story-telling approach, this answers the questions: Why does this technology matter? How does it work? Where is it used? What problems does it solve?


Through easy, whiteboard-style infographics, you’ll learn: how virtualization enables SDN and NFV; how datacenters are virtualized through clouds; how networks can also be virtualized; and how to maximize security, visibility, and Quality of Experience in tomorrow’s fully-virtualized environments.


Step by step, you’ll discover why SDN and NFV technologies are completely redefining both enterprise and carrier networks, and driving the most dramatic technology migration since IP networking. That’s not all: You’ll learn all you need to help lead this transformation.


  • Learn how virtualization establishes the foundation for SDN and NFV
  • Review the benefits of VMs, the role of hypervisors, and the management of virtual resources
  • Discover how cloud technologies enable datacenter virtualization
  • Understand the roles of networking gear in virtualized datacenters
  • See VMWare VMotion and VXLAN at work in the virtualized datacenter
  • Understand multitenancy and the challenges of “communal living”
  • Learn how core network functions and appliances can be virtualized
  • Ensure performance and scalability in virtualized networks
  • Compare modern approaches to network virtualization, including OpenFlow, VMWare Nicera, Cisco Inseieme, and OpenStack
  • Walk through the business case for SDN, NFV, and the Cloud
  • Discover how the Software Defined Network (SDN) solves problems previously left unaddressed
  • Understand SDN controllers–and who’s fighting to control your network
  • Use SDN and NFV to improve integration and say goodbye to “truck rolls”
  • Enforce security, avoid data leakage, and protect assets through encryption
  • Provide for effective monitoring and consistent Quality of Experience (QoE)
  • Learn how SDN and NFV will affect you–and what’s next


Table of contents

    Introduction xiii

Part 1 Virtualization 101: The Basics of Virtualization 1

Chapter 1 Primer on Virtualization 3

    Server Proliferation, Massive Power Bills, and Other IT Nightmares 3

    How Servers Work 6

    How VMs Fix the Underutilized Server Problem 7

    Enter the Hypervisor 8

    Why Are Virtual Machines Such a Big Deal? 10

Chapter 2 Benefits of Virtual Machines 13

    Reduced Cost 13

    Less Space (Even More Cost Savings) 15

    Availability and Flexibility 15

    Faster Application Spin-Up and Provisioning 16

    Easier Access for Development 17

    Believe the Hype! 18

Chapter 3 Hypervisors (VMWare, KVM, and Others) 21

    An Operating System for Operating Systems 21

    A Virtual Machine Monitor 22

    Types of Hypervisors 22

    Hypervisor Vendors 24

        KVM 24

        Xen 25

        VMware ESXi 26

        Microsoft Hyper-V 26

    Choosing a Hypervisor 27

    Summary 27

Chapter 4 Managing Virtual Resources 29

    What Is a Workload? 30

    Managing Virtual Resources in the Hypervisor 31

    Virtual Resource Providers and Consumers 33

    So How Do You Manage Virtual Resources? 34

Part 2 Virtualization 201: Virtualizing the Data Center (a.k.a. Clouds) 37

Chapter 5 Virtualized Data Centers (Some Call Them Clouds) 39

    Benefits of Virtualizing the Data Center 39

        Less Heat Buildup 39

        Reduced Hardware Spend 40

        Faster Deployment 40

        Testing and Development 40

        Faster Redeploy 40

        Easier Backups 40

        Disaster Recovery 41

        Server Standardization 41

        Separation of Services 41

        Easier Migration to the Cloud 41

    Is It a Cloud Yet? 41

    The Five Cloud Attributes 42

        On-Demand Self-Service 43

        Ubiquitous Network Access 43

        Pay Per Use 43

        Rapid Elasticity 43

        Location-Independent Resource Pooling 44

    Types of Clouds 44

        Software as a Service 44

        Infrastructure as a Service 45

        Platform as a Service 47

    Cloud Deployment Models 48

        Private Clouds 48

        Shared Multitenant Clouds 48

        Public Clouds 48

        Hybrid Clouds 48

Chapter 6 Virtual Machine Connectivity 53

    Networking in Traditional Data Centers 53

    Virtualized Data Center Design 55

    Addressing with Virtual Machines 56

Chapter 7 Networking Gear in Virtualized Data Centers 61

    The Evolution of Data Center Switching 61

    Cloud and Data Center Layout and Architecture 63

    Virtualized Aware Network Switches 65

Chapter 8 VMware, VSphere, VMotion, and VXLAN 67

    VMware Product Design 67

        vSphere 68

        VMotion 69

        VXLAN 70

            VXLAN Tunnel Endpoints 71

    Summary 72

Chapter 9 Multitenancy and the Problems of Communal Living 73

    SaaS Multitenancy 73

        Pros and Cons of SaaS Multitenancy 75

    IaaS Multitenancy 76

        Pros and Cons of IaaS Multitenancy 77

Part 3 Network Functions Virtualized: Why Stop With Servers? 81

Chapter 10 How Do You Virtualize a Network? 83

    Network Virtualization 83

    How Does This Fit with NFV and SDN? 84

        Server Virtualization 85

        Network Virtualization 85

        Network Functions Virtualization 85

        Software-Defined Networking 85

    Virtualizing the Network 86

Chapter 11 Virtualizing Appliances 89

    Layer 4 Through 7 Network Services 89

        Firewalls 90

        VPNs 90

        SSL Offload 90

        Load Balancer 90

    Fighting Virtualization with Virtualization 91

    What’s the “So What”? 92

Chapter 12 Virtualizing Core Networking Functions 93

    Virtualization Recap 93

    Where Core Functions Are Being Virtualized 95

Chapter 13 What About Scalability and Performance? 99

    Scalability Versus Performance 99

    Performance in Network Virtualization 100

    Scalability and Performance in Virtual Networks 100

    Scalability and Performance for Virtual Appliances 101

    Scalability and Performance of Virtualized Networks 102

    Summary 102

Part 4 Modern Networking Approaches to Virtualization 105

Chapter 14 From Consumers to Creators 107

    The Emergence of SaaS 108

    Cloud Business Consumer-Creators 109

Chapter 15 OpenFlow 113

    OpenFlow History 114

    How OpenFlow Works 115

Chapter 16 VMware Nicira 119

    VMware NSX 120

        Network Virtualization with NSX 120

        How VMware Leverages Nicira (NSX) 121

Chapter 17 Cisco Insieme 125

    Cisco’s Hybrid SDN Solution 125

    Cisco SDN and Insieme 126

Chapter 18 OpenStack 129

    Applications on Modern Networks 129

Part 5 Software Defined Networks 135

Chapter 19 The Evolution of the Data Center Network 137

    Networks Worked Great, Until They Didn’t 138

    Traditional Data Center Design Goals 139

        High Availability 139

        Low Latency 139

        Scalability 139

        Security 139

    The Cost Model Explodes 140

    How We Got Here 141

Chapter 20 What’s Wrong with the Network We Have? 143

    A Brief Review of Networking 144

        Control Planes and Forwarding Planes 145

        The Cost of Complexity 145

        Decoupling Networking Applications from Networking Gear 147

Chapter 21 How SDN Works 149

    Understanding SDN 149

        The Application Layer 151

        The Control Layer 152

        The Infrastructure Layer 152

    A Programmable Network 152

    So What’s the “So What?” 153

Chapter 22 The Economic Impact of SDN, NFV, and the Cloud 157

    Winners in SDN, NFV, and the Cloud 157

        How the “Little Guy” Wins 157

        How Large Enterprises Win with SDN, NFV, and the Cloud 160

    Losers in the Cloud 163

    The Economic Value of Increased Innovation 164

Part 6 SDN Controllers 167

Chapter 23 SDN Controllers 169

    Centralized Control 169

        Commercial Versus Open Source Controllers 170

    Network Virtualization 171

viii SDN and NFV Simplified

Chapter 24 The OpenDaylight Project 175

    How the ODL Architecture Works 177

    The ODL Controller Platform 178

Chapter 25 The Fight to Control Your Network 181

    Separation of Internal Controls 181

    You Can See It, But Who Controls It? 184

Chapter 26 What’s the Business Case for SDN? 187

    SDN Use Case Examples 188

        Data Center Optimization 189

        Network Access Control 189

        Network Virtualization 189

        Virtual Customer Edge 189

        Dynamic Interconnects 189

        Virtual Core and Aggregation 189

    Summary 190

Part 7 Virtualized Networks 193

Chapter 27 Goodbye Truck Rolls 195

    Data Center Scale 195

    A New Maintenance Philosophy 198

    Summary 199

Chapter 28 What If the Shoe Doesn’t Fit? 201

    Where SDN Does Not Fit 202

    When Should You Adopt SDN? 202

    Stuck in the Middle 203

Chapter 29 Service Chaining 205

    Service Chaining in SDN 206

Chapter 30 NFV: What Happens to All the Network Appliances? 209

    How Network Appliances Are Different 209

        Replacing Big Hardware Appliances with Many Small Virtual Appliances 210

    When Not to Get Rid of an Appliance 211

Part 8 Security 213

Chapter 31 Where’s My Data, Exactly? 215

    Storage Virtualization 215

    Storage-Area Networks 216

    Data Location and Security 217

    So What Are the Nontechnical Issues That We Need to Address? 218

    Summary 219

Chapter 32 Preventing Data Leakage 223

    Minimizing Data Loss 224

    Data Loss Prevention 225

Chapter 33 Logging and Auditing 229

    Where Logging Matters 231

    Summary 233

Chapter 34 Encryption in Virtual Networks 235

    Data in Motion 235

    Data at Rest 236

    Key Management 238

    Best Practices 238

Chapter 35 Everything Old Is Now New Again 241

    How We Got Here 241

        The Mainframe Model 241

        The Personal Computer Model 241

        The Networked Model 242

        The Internet Model 242

        Grid Computing Model 242

        Cloud Computing Model 242

    What We Have Learned 242

    Retro Security Considerations 244

    Recycled Ideas on Mobile and Web Apps 245

Part 9 Visibility 247

Chapter 36 Overlay Networks 249

    MPLS: The Original Virtual Network 249

    Virtual Layer 2 Designs 250

    Enter SDN 252

    Common Encapsulation Techniques 252

Chapter 37 Network Management Tools 255

    What’s in the Tool Bag? 256

    Tapping In 256

    Gaining Visibility 257

Chapter 38 Quality of Experience 261

    Deep Packet Inspection 263

Chapter 39 Monitoring Traffic Between Virtual Switches 265

    Getting VM Visibility 265

    Monitoring VM-to-VM traffic 266

    How VxLANs Work 267

    Creating a “Visibility Layer” 267

Part 10 The Big Picture 269

Chapter 40 Pulling It All Together 271

    Why the Network Had to Change 271

    How SDN and NFV Tie Together 273

    SDN’s Downside: A Loss of Visibility 274

    SDN Orchestration 274

Chapter 41 How SDN and NFV Will Affect You 277

    Operational Domains 278

        Mobility Virtualization 278

        Virtual CPE and Service Chaining 278

        NFV and Service Orchestration 278

        WAN Optimization and Innovation 278

        Network Optimization 278

        Policy-Driven Application Provisioning and Delivery 279

    SDN Use Cases 279

        Network Access Control 279

        Network Virtualization 279

        Data Center Optimization 279

        Direct Inter-Connects 279

    Embracing SDN and NFV 279

Chapter 42 What’s Next in Networking? 283

    Separate but Complementary 283

    Virtual Customer Premise Equipment 284

        SDN and NFV Working Together 285

        Summary 286

TOC, 9780134306407, 2/15/16


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Published by Addison-Wesley Professional (March 2nd 2016) - Copyright © 2016