Preface. Acknowledgments. 1. Network Models and Protocols.
Layered Network Models. The OSI/ISO 7-Layer Reference Model. The TCP/IP 5-Layer Model. Benefits of Using Network Models: A Summary. The Layers of the TCP/IP 5-Layer Model. Application Layer (5). Transport Layer (4). Internet Layer (3). Network Interface Layer (2). Physical Layer (1). Network Protocols. Transport Layer Protocols: TCP and UDP. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Internet Protocol (IPv4). Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). Peer-to-Peer Communication. TCP/IP Protocols by Name and Function. 2. Introduction to Local Area Networks.
LAN Basics, Advantages, and Disadvantages. LAN Topologies. Bus LANs. Star LANs. Ring LANs. LAN Components. Backbone. Segment. Repeater. Hub (Multiport Repeater). Bridge. Switch (Multiport Bridge). Router. Gateway. Concentrator. Non-TCP/IP LAN-Based Technologies and Protocols. 3. The Ethernet LAN.
The Ethernet Specification. IEEE Ethernet Identifiers. The Ethernet Address. The Scope of Ethernet Addresses. Sending Data to a Single Ethernet Host (Unicast). Sending Data to a Group of Ethernet Hosts (Multicast). Sending Data to All Ethernet Hosts on Subnet (Broadcast). Global versus Local Port Ethernet Addresses. The Ethernet Frame V2. Frame Overhead Fields. Minimum Frame Length. Maximum Frame Length. Ethernet V2 Frame Fields. Destination Ethernet Address. Source Ethernet Address. Type Field. Data Field. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC). The Ethernet Access Method. Using ndd to Set and Get Protocol and Interface Driver Parameters. Protocol Variables. Getting Parameter Settings. Setting Parameter Settings. Sun Ethernet Controllers. Fast Ethernet Cards. Slow Ethernet Cards. 4. The ARP and RARP Protocols.
Address Mapping with ARP and RARP. The ARP/RARP Protocol Format. ARP and RARP Operations. ARP. ARP Request, Operation 1 (Opcode 1). ARP Reply, Operation 2 (Opcode 2). RARP. RARP Request, Operation 3 (Opcode 3). RARP Reply, Operation 4 (Opcode 4). Configuring the RARP Server. The ARP Cache and arp Command. The ARP Cache. The Arp Command. Checking a Single Cache Entry. Viewing the Entire ARP cache with arp “a”. Deleting an ARP Cache Entry with arp “d”. Adding a Static ARP Cache Entry with arp “s” and -f. 5. The Internet Layer and IPv4.
IPv4 Address Classes, Netmasks, and the Broadcast Address. IPv4 Address Classes A, B, C, and D. Class A Networks and Addresses. Class B Networks and Addresses. Class C Networks and Addresses. Class D Multicast Identifiers and Multicast Groups. Netmask (Subnet Mask). Truth Tables, Binary Logic, and the Netmask Value. Computing the Network Number Using the Netmask Rule. The Broadcast Address. Special-Case IP Addresses. Special Broadcast Address Types. Subnetting. Why Subnet? Creating Multiple Logical Networks from a Single Network Address. Traffic and Protocol Isolation. Increased Security. Delegated Subnet Administration. How Subnetting Works. Subnetting on a Non-Byte Boundary. The IPv4 Datagram Header and Datagram Fragmentation. The IPv4 Header. IPv4 Header Fields. Datagram Fragmentation. Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR). The Netmasks File. Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM). Configuring a Network Interface. Types of Solaris 8 Interfaces. Configuring the Three Types of Solaris Interfaces. Example 1. Example 2. Example 3. Example 4. Example 5. Example 6. Plumbing in a Temporary Virtual Interface. Creating a Permanent Virtual Interface. 6. Routing over TCP/IP with Solaris 8.
IP Routing An Introduction. Non-router Host Behavior. Router Host Behavior. A Routing Example. Solaris 8 Routing Protocols and Daemons. The Routing Information Protocol (RIP). RIP Features. The RIP Routing Process. Stability Properties of RIP. The Router Discovery Protocol (RDP). Building the MAC Address for a Multicast Group. Solaris 8 Router Configuration Files and Their Functions. Adding Default Routes through the /etc/defaultrouter File. Direct and Indirect Routing. Working with the /etc/gateways File. Example 1: Adding a Network Route to the Routing Table on Host voyager. Example 2: Adding a Default Route to the Routing Table Using the /etc/gateways File. Example 3: Preventing RIP from Entering or Leaving an Interface. Configuring a Solaris 8 System as a Router. Administering the Solaris 8 Routing Table Using the route and netstat Commands. Adding and Deleting Routes Using the route Command. Example 1: Adding a Network-Specific Route on mars. Example 2: Adding a Network-Specific Route on pluto. Example 3: Adding a Default Route on voyager. Example 4: Deleting the Network-Specific Route Added in Example 1. Example 5: Deleting the Network-Specific Route Added in Example 2. Example 6: Deleting the Default Route on voyager Added in Example 3. Continuously Monitoring Routing Information Using the route Command. Getting Routing Information and Displaying on Standard Output. Viewing the Routing Table with netstat. Line 1. Line 2. Line 3. Line 4. Line 5. Using netstat Ðrn. Additional in.routed Options. Capturing Routing Information in a Log File. Capturing Routing Information and Displaying on Standard Output. 7. The Transport Layer Protocols.
TCP Encapsulation, Header, and Features. TCP Encapsulation. The TCP Header. Source and Destination Port Numbers. 32-Bit Sequence Number. 32-Bit Acknowledgment Number. 4-Bit Header Length. Control Bits. Window Size. Checksum. Urgent Pointer. Options. Padding. TCP Data. TCP Features. Connection Establishment and Release. Positive Acknowledgment with Retransmission. Sliding Window Protocol. UDP Encapsulation, Header, and Features. UDP Encapsulation. The UDP Header. Source and Destination Port Fields. The UDP Length Field. The UDP Checksum Field. UDP Features. Line 1. Line 2. Comparison of TCP and UDP. The IP Interface to the Transport Layer. 8. The Client-Server Model.
Servers, Clients, and Services. Client/Server Applications: An Overview. ONC+ Applications. eXternal Data Representation (XDR). Transport Layer Interface (TLI). Sockets. Network File System (NFS). Network Information Service (NIS/NIS+). Configuring Solaris 8 Servers. Starting Servers. Starting Standalone Servers. Starting Services through inetd. Allocating Port Numbers to Traditional and TI-RPC Servers. Port Allocation to Traditional Servers via /etc/inet/services. Port Allocation to TI-RPC Servers via rpcbind. TI-RPC Server Program Numbers. Monitoring Services and Servers. Server Monitoring with the netstat Command. Server Monitoring with the rpcinfo Command. rpcbind Fields. mountd Fields. The /etc/rpc File. Official Server Name. Program Number. Aliases. omparing inetd and rpcbind. 9. Dynamic Address Allocation with DHCP.
Overview of DHCP. DHCP Terminology. DHCP Client. DHCP Server. BOOTP Relay. DHCP Binding. Lease. Advantages of Using DHCP. Disadvantages of Using DHCP. DHCP IP Address Allocation Modes. Automatic Allocation of Permanent IP Addresses. Dynamic Allocation of IP Addresses. Manual Allocation of IP Addresses. Allocating a Specific Address to a DHCP Client. DHCP Configuration Files. The /etc/dhcp/inittab File. Option Type STANDARD. Option Type SITE. Option Type VENDOR. Option Type FIELD. Option Type INTERNAL. The /var/dhcp/dhcp_network File. The /var/dhcp/dhcptab File. Name. Type. Value. Lease Negotiation. The /etc/dhcp.interface File. The /etc/default/dhcp File. The /etc/default/dhcpagent File. Example 1. Example 2. Administering DHCP Clients and Servers. DHCP Server Installation Using dhcpconfig. Managing the/var/dhcp/dhcp_network File with the pntadm Command. The “c” Option. The “a” Option. The “m” Option. The “d” Option. The “p” Option. The “r” Option. The “l” Option. Managing the /var/dhcp/dhcptab File with the dhtadm Command. The “C” Option. The “A” Option. The “M” Option. The “D” Option. The “R” Option. The DHCP Server Daemon in.dhcpd. 10. Network Management Using SNMP.
Network Management: An Overview. Network Management as Defined by ISO. Network Management Tools. Introduction to the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). SNMP Functions: get, set, and trap. Structure of Management Information and the OID Tree. Management Information Bases (MIB) and ASN. Sun's SNMP-Based Management Tools. 11. Domain Name Service (DNS).
DNS: The Glue of the Internet. DNS and Berkeley Internet Domain Name (BIND) Software. Solaris 8 Version of DNS and BIND. Solaris Name Services: A Comparison. The DNS Namespace. Domain Name Basics. Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN) versus Relative Domain Names (RDN). Top Level Domains (TLDs). Zones of Authority and Delegation. Types of DNS Servers. Root-Level DNS Servers. Nonroot Master DNS Servers and the named.root File. DNS Master Servers. DNS Slave Servers. DNS Caching-Only Servers. DNS Forwarding Servers. Querying Servers: Recursion versus Iteration. The Main Configuration File /etc/named.conf. Named.conf Entries. The /etc/named.conf Main Configuration File. The Directives in /etc/named.conf. Options. Server. Zone. The acl Directive. The include Directive. The Zone Database Files and the Resource Record (RR) Format. Syntax of the Resource Record (RR). [NAME] Field. [TTL] Field. [CLASS] Field. [RECORD-TYPE] and [RECORD-DATA] Fields. The Zone Database Files. A Forward Zone File Example. The Reverse Zone File. The Root Zone File. Creating a DNS Server and Client Step by Step. Creating a DNS Server. Creating The Main /etc/named.conf File on Server rigel. Creating a /var/named Directory and Desired Subdirectories. Creating Zone Files for Each Zone Supported. Modifying the /etc/nsswitch.conf File. Starting in.named. Creating a DNS Client. DNS Debugging and Dumping the DNS Cache. Sending Signals to in.named. The INT Signal-Dumping the DNS Server's Cache. The HUP Signal-Reloading the Server's Configuration Files. The USR1 Signal-Activating Real-Time Debugging. The TERM and KILL SignalsÑKilling in.named. Additional Tools. 12. The Network Time Protocol (NTP).
Solaris 8 NTP Features and Terminology. NTP Basic Terminology. A Brief Description of Solaris 8 NTP. Solaris 8 NTP Configuration Files. The Primary NTP Configuration Files. /etc/inet/ntp.conf. /var/ntp/ntp.drift. /etc/init.d/xntpd. /var/adm/messages. Verifying That Solaris 8 NTP Packages Are Installed. Configuring a Solaris 8 NTP Client and Server. Configuring a Solaris 8 NTP Server. Creating the NTP Server Main Configuration File. Configuring the NTP Server. Configuring a Solaris 8 NTP Client. Configuring the Client's ntp.conf File. Running the xntpd Daemon. Client Synchronization and the Log File Entries. Some Useful NTP Commands: ntpq and ntptrace. 13. The New Internet Protocol: IPv6.
IPv6, the New Internet Protocol. The IPv6 Datagram Header. Fields of the IPv6 Header. Version. Traffic Class. Flow Label. Payload Length. Next Header. Hop Limit. Source IP Address. Destination IP Address. Comparing the IPv6 and IPv4 Headers. IPv4 Options Field. Checksum Field. Router Fragmentation Field. The IPv6 Address Format. Text Representation of IPv6 Addresses. Colon Notation Example Using an IPv4 Address. Colon Notation Example Using IPv6 Addresses. IPv6 Subnet Prefixes. The Three Types of IPv6 Addresses. The Three Types of IPv6 Unicast Addresses. Aggregatable Global Unicast Addresses. Site-Local Unicast Addresses. Link-Local Unicast Addresses. IPv6 Special Unicast Addresses. IPv6 Multicast Addresses. The IPv6 Multicast Address Format. Multicast Addresses Used by the Network Time Protocol (NTP). Node-Local, Link-Local, and Site-Local Multicast Addresses. IPv6 Anycast Addresses. Configuring an IPv6 Network Interface. Autoconfiguring IPv6 Link-Local Addresses. Obtaining the Host's Ethernet Address. Converting to Binary. Inverting Bit 7 (High-Order Byte). Inserting 0xFF and 0xFE between the CID and VID. Adding the Prefix. Configuring an IPv6 Permanent Address Manually. Plumbing in Interface hme0:10. Bringing Up and Assigning an IPv6 Address. Testing with the ping Command. Appendix A. Multiple-Choice Answers. Appendix B. Free Response Answers. Appendix C. Examination Objectives. Index.