Virtual Private Networks: Technologies and Solutions, 1st edition

  • Ruixi Yuan
  • W Timothy Strayer

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Virtual private networks have become an essential part of today's business networks, as they provide a cost-effective means of assuring private internal and external communications over the shared Internet infrastructure. Virtual Private Networks: Technologies and Solutions is a comprehensive, practical guide to VPNs. This book presents the various technology components, concrete solutions, and best practices you need to deploy and manage a highly successful VPN.

Readers will find an overview of fundamental VPN concepts and architectures, followed by an in-depth examination of advanced features and functions such as tunneling, authentication, access control, VPN gateways, VPN clients, and VPN network and service management. Specific topics covered include:

  • IPsec, featuring the Authentication Header, Encapsulating Security Payload, Internet Key
  • Exchange, and implementation details
  • PPTP, L2F, L2TP, and MPLS as VPN tunneling protocols
  • Two-party and three-party authentication, including RADIUS and Kerberos
  • Public key infrastructure (PKI) and its integration into VPN solutions
  • Access control policies, mechanisms, and management, and their application to VPNs
  • VPN gateway functions, including site-to-site intranet, remote access, and extranet
  • Gateway configuration, provisioning, monitoring, and accounting
  • Gateway interaction with firewalls and routers
  • VPN client implementation issues, including interaction with operating systems
  • Client operation issues, including working with NAT, DNS, and link MTU limits
  • VPN management architectures and tunnel and security management
  • Outsourcing and service provider environments

The book concludes with a forward look at the future of VPNs that examines such issues as security and quality of service (QoS). VPN scenarios throughout the book demonstrate how to put the described techniques and technologies to work in a real-world Virtual Private Network.


Table of contents



1. Introduction.

Business Communication.

VPN Motivation.

The VPN Market.

VPN Technologies.

VPN Solutions.

2. Basic Concepts.

A Brief History of the Internet.

Network Architecture.

ISO OSI Reference Model.


Network Topology.

The Need for Security.


Shared Key Cryptography.

Public Key Cryptography.

Digital Signatures.

Message Authentication Codes.

3. VPN Architectures.

Site-to-Site Intranet VPNs.

Remote Access VPNs.

Extranet VPNs.

A Security Services Taxonomy.


4. Tunnels.


Data Integrity and Confidentiality.

VPN Tunneling Protocols.






5. Ipsec.

Basic IPsec Concepts.

Security Protocols.

Security Associations.

Security Databases.

IPsec and VPNs.

Authentication Header.

Encapsulating Security Payload.

Internet Key Exchange.

Phase 1 Negotiation.

Phase 2 Negotiation.

Key Generation in IKE.

IPsec Implementation.

Inbound Packet Processing.

Outbound Packet Processing.

6. Authentication.

Two-Party Authentication.

PPP Authentication.


S/KEY and OTP.

Trusted Third-Party Authentication.


X.509 Public Key Infrastructure.

Pretty Good Privacy Trust Model.

Authentication in VPNs.

Gateway-Gateway Authentication.

Client-Gateway Authentication.

7. Public Key Infrastructure.

PKI Architecture.



Certificate Revocation.

Trust Models.

Digital Certificate Formats.

X.509 Digital Certificate.

PGP Certificate.

PKCS #6, Extended-Certificate Syntax Standard.

X.509 Attribute Certificate.

Certificate Management System.

Certification Authority.

Registration Authority.

Certificate and CRL Repository.

Certificate Protocols.

Certificate Use in VPNs.


Key Management.

Access Control.

8. Access Control.

Access Control Policy.

Attributes and Conditions.

Access Control Rules.

Access Control Mechanisms.

Access Control Lists.

Capabilities Lists.

Access Control Policy Management.

Distributed Policy Management.

Centralized Policy Management.

Policy Repository.

Access Control in VPNs.


9. VPN Gateways.

VPN Gateway Functions.

Site-to-Site Intranet VPN Functions.

Remote Access VPN Functions.

Extranet VPN Functions.

Forwarding, Routing, and Filtering Functions.

Advanced Functions.

Gateway Configuration and Provisioning.

Gateway Identity Information.

External Device Information.

Security Policy Information.

Gateway Management.

Configuration Management.

Network Monitoring.

Accounting Information.

Gateway Certification.

Interaction with Firewalls.

VPN Gateway and Firewall in Parallel.

VPN Gateway and Firewall in Series.

Hybrid Configurations.

VPN Design Issues.

A VPN Solution Scenario.

10. VPN Clients.

VPN Client Functions.

Operating System Issues.

Microsoft Windows.

Other Operating Systems.

Operational Issues.

Working with the Corporate Firewall.

Working with Network Address Translation.

Fragmentation and MTU Issues.

Private and Public Domain Name Servers.

WINS Server Issues.

VPN Clients for Windows.

Layer 2 Clients.

IPsec Clients.

L2TP/IPsec Combination Clients.

VPN Client Software Installation.

VPN Clients for Other Platforms.

Layer 2 Implementations.

IPsec Implementations.

Alternative VPN Clients.

SSH as VPN Client.

SOCKS and SSL as VPN Client.

User-Level Daemon.

A Remote Access VPN Scenario.

11. VPN Network and Service Management.

Network Management Standards.

Network Management Architecture.

Network Management Station.

Managed Nodes.

Network Management Protocol.

Management Information.


6 Other Means of Management.


VPN Management.

Managing Tunnels.

VPN Management in a Service Provider Environment.

Secure Management Tunnel in VPN.

Out-of-Band Access for Management.

Service Management.

Service Level Agreement.

Network Operations Center.

Customer Portal.

International Issues.

12. VPN Directions: Beyond Connectivity.

Evolutions in Network Infrastructure.

Evolutions in VPNs.

Internetworking Beyond Connectivity.

Network Security.

Quality of Service.

Intelligence in the Network.



Index. 0201702096T04262001

Published by Addison-Wesley Professional (April 24th 2001) - Copyright © 2001