TIMSS 2019: gender, performance and attitudes towards learning in mathematics and science – some implications for schools


UCL IOE led the research and analysis for TIMSS 2019 and is doing so again for TIMSS 2023; as a research team we are interested in the experiences of the test takers, and central to our explorations of the TIMSS19 data was performance in the tests and how this differed according to the gender of participants. An equally important feature was exploring by gender the ‘voice’ of participating pupils articulated through survey questionnaires, and their attitudes towards learning in mathematics and science.  Like many studies, TIMSS avoids the terms sex and gender, and offers ‘Male’ or ‘Female’ (here, we use ‘girls’ and ‘boys’).