## Table of Contents

**1. Critical Thinking Skills**

1.1 Inductive Reasoning

1.2 Estimation

1.3 Problem Solving

**2. Sets**

2.1 Set Concepts

2.2 Subsets

2.3 Venn Diagrams and Set Operations

2.4 Venn Diagrams with Three Sets and Verification of Equality of Sets

2.5 Applications of Sets

2.6 Infinite Sets

**3. Logic**

3.1 Statements and Logical Connectives

3.2 Truth Tables for Negation, Conjunction, and Disjunction

3.3 Truth Tables for the Conditional and Biconditional

3.4 Equivalent Statements

3.5 Symbolic Arguments

3.6 Euler Diagrams and Syllogistic Arguments

3.7 Switching Circuits

**4. Systems of Numeration**

4.1 Additive, Multiplicative, and Ciphered Systems of Numeration

4.2 Place-Value or Positional-Value Numeration Systems

4.3 Other Bases

4.4 Computation In Other Bases

4.5 Early Computational Methods

**5. Number Theory and the Real Number System**

5.1 Number Theory

5.2 The Integers

5.3 The Rational Numbers

5.4 The Irrational Numbers and the Real Number System

5.5 Real Numbers and Their Properties

5.6 Rules of Exponents and Scientific Notation

5.7 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences

5.8 Fibonacci Sequence

**6. Algebra, Graphs, and Functions**

6.1 Order of Operations

6.2 Linear Equations in One Variable

6.3 Formulas

6.4 Applications of Linear Equations In One Variable

6.5 Variation

6.6 Linear Inequalities

6.7 Graphing Linear Equations

6.8 Linear Inequalities In Two Variables

6.9 Solving Quadratic Equations By Using Factoring and By Using the Quadratic Formula

6.10 Functions and Their Graphs

**7. Systems of Linear Equations and Inequalities**

7.1 Systems of Linear Equations

7.2 Solving Systems of Linear Equations by the Substitution and Addition Methods

7.3 Matrices

7.4 Solving Systems of Linear Equations by Using Matrices

7.5 Systems of Linear Inequalities

7.6 Linear Programming

**8. The Metric System**

8.1 Basic Terms and Conversions Within the Metric System

8.2 Length, Area, and Volume

8.3 Mass and Temperature

8.4 Dimensional Analysis and Conversions To and From the Metric System

**9. Geometry**

9.1 Points, Lines, Planes, and Angles

9.2 Polygons

9.3 Perimeter and Area

9.4 Volume and Surface Area

9.5 Transformational Geometry, Symmetry, and Tessellations

9.6 Topology

9.7 Non-Euclidean Geometry and Fractal Geometry

**10. Mathematical Systems**

10.1 Groups

10.2 Finite Mathematical Systems

10.3 Modular Arithmetic

**11. Consumer Mathematics**

11.1 Percent

11.2 Personal Loans and Simple Interest

11.3 Compound Interest

11.4 Installment Buying

11.5 Buying A House With A Mortgage

11.6 Ordinary Annuities, Sinking Funds, and Retirement Investments

**12. Probability**

12.1 The Nature of Probability

12.2 Theoretical Probability

12.3 Odds

12.4 Expected Value (Expectation)

12.5 Tree Diagrams

12.6 *OR* and *AND* Problems

12.7 Conditional Probability

12.8 The Counting Principle and Permutations

12.9 Combinations

12.10 Solving Probability Problems By Using Combinations

12.11 Binomial Probability Formula

**13. Statistics**

13.1 Sampling Techniques

13.2 The Misuses of Statistics

13.3 Frequency Distributions and Statistical Graphs

13.4 Measures of Central Tendency

13.5 Measures of Dispersion

13.6 The Normal Curve

13.7 Linear Correlation and Regression

**14. Graph Theory**

14.1 Graphs, Paths, and Circuits

14.2 Euler Paths and Euler Circuits

14.3 Hamilton Paths and Hamilton Circuits

14.4 Trees

**15. Voting and Apportionment**

15.1 Voting Methods

15.2 Flaws of Voting

15.3 Apportionment Methods

15.4 Flaws of the Apportionment Methods

Answers

Credits

Index of Applications

Index