## Table of Contents

**In this Section:**

1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents

__1. BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS__

Chapter 1 Displaying the order in a group of numbers

Chapter 2 Central tendency and variability

Chapter 3 Some key ingredients for inferential statistics: *Z* scores, the normal curve, sample versus

population, and probability

Chapter 4 Introduction to hypothesis testing

Chapter 5 Hypothesis testing with means of samples

Chapter 6 Making sense of statistical significance: Effect size and statistical power

Chapter 7 Introduction to the *t* test: Single sample and dependent means

Chapter 8 The *t* test for independent means

Chapter 9 Introduction to the analysis of variance

Chapter 10 Factorial analysis of variance

Chapter 11 Correlation

Chapter 12 Prediction

Chapter 13 Chi-square tests

Chapter 14 Strategies when population distributions are not normal: Data transformations and rank-order

tests

Chapter 15 Integration and the general linear model and Making sense of advanced statistical procedures in

research articles

__2. FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS__

**Chapter 1: Displaying the order in a group of numbers**

The Two Branches of Statistical Methods

Some Basic Concepts

Frequency Tables

Histograms

Shapes of Frequency Distributions

Controversy: Misleading Graphs

Frequency Tables and Histograms in Research Articles

Summary

Key Terms

Example Worked-Out Problems

Practice Problems

Using SPSS

Chapter Note

**Chapter 2: Central tendency and variability**

Central Tendency

Variability

Controversy: The Tyranny of the Mean

Central Tendency and Variability in Research Articles

Summary

Key Terms

Example Worked-Out Problems

Practice Problems

Using SPSS

Chapter Note

**Chapter 3: Some key ingredients for inferential statistics: ***Z* scores, the normal **curve, sample versus **

** population, and probability**

Z Scores

The Normal Curve

Sample and Population

Probability

Controversies: Is the Normal Curve Really So Normal? And Using Nonrandom Samples

Z Scores, Normal Curves, Samples and Populations, and Probabilities in Research Articles

Advanced Topics: Probability Rules and Conditional Probabilities

Summary

Key Terms

Example Worked-Out Problems

Practice Problems

Using SPSS

Chapter Note

**Chapter 4: Introduction to hypothesis testing**

A Hypothesis-Testing Example

The Core Logic of Hypothesis Testing

The Hypothesis-Testing Process

One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Hypothesis Tests

Controversy: Should Significance Tests Be Banned?

Hypothesis Tests in Research Articles

Summary

Key Terms

Example Worked-Out Problems

Practice Problems

Using SPSS

Chapter Note

**Chapter 5: Hypothesis testing with means of samples**

The Distribution of Means

Hypothesis Testing with a Distribution of Means: The Z Test

Controversy: Marginal Significance

Hypothesis Tests About Means of Samples (Z Tests) and Standards Errors in Research Articles

Advanced Topic: Estimation, Standard Errors, and Confidence Intervals

Advanced Topic Controversy: Confidence Intervals versus Significance Tests

Advance Topic: Confidence Intervals in Research Articles

Summary

Key Terms

Example Worked-Out Problems

Practice Problems

Using SPSS

Chapter Note

**Chapter 6: Making sense of statistical significance: Effect size and statistical power**

Decision Errors

Effect Size

Statistical Power

What Determines the Power of Study

The Role of Power Interpreting the Results of a Study

Controversy: Statistical Significance versus Effect Size

Decision Errors, Effect Size, and Power in Research Articles

Advanced Topics; Figuring Statistical Power

Summary

Key Terms

Example Worked-Out Problems

Practice Problems

Using SPSS

Chapter Note

**Chapter 7: Introduction to the ***t* test: Single sample and dependent means

The *t* Test for a Single Sample

The *t* Test for Dependent Means

Assumptions of the *t* Test for a Single Sample and the* t* Test for Dependent Means

Controversy: Advantages and Disadvantages of Repeated-Measures Designs

Single Sample* t* Tests and Dependent Means *t* Tests in Research Articles

Summary

Key Terms

Example Worked-Out Problems

Practice Problems

Using SPSS

Chapter Note

**Chapter 8: The ***t* test for independent means

The Distribution of Differences Between Means

Hypothesis Testing with a *t* Test for Independent Means

Assumptions of the *t* Test for Independent Means

Effect Size and Power for the* t* Test for Independent Means

Review and Comparison of the Three Kinds of* t* Tests

The t Test for Independent Means in Research Articles

Advanced Topic: Power for the t Test for Independent Means When Sample Sizes Are Not Equal

Summary

Key Terms

Example Worked-Out Problems

Practice Problems

Using SPSS

Chapter Note

**Chapter 9: Introduction to the analysis of variance**

Basic Logic of the Analysis of Variance

Carrying Out an Analysis of Variance

Hypothesis Testing with the Analysis of Variance

Assumptions in the Analysis of Variance

Planned Contrasts

Post Hoc Comparisons

Effect Size and Power for the Analysis of Variance

Controversy: Omnibus Tests versus Planned Contrasts

Analyses of Variance in Research Articles

Advanced Topic: The Structural Model in the Analysis of Variance

Principles of the Structural Model

Summary

Key Terms

Example Worked-Out Problems

Practice Problems

Using SPSS

Chapter Note

**Chapter 10: Factorial analysis of variance**

Basic Logic of Factorial Designs and Interaction Effects

Recognizing and Interpreting Interaction Effect

Basic Logic of the Two-Way Analysis of Variance

Assumptions in the Factorial Analysis of Variance

Extensions and Special Cases of the Analysis of Variance

Controversy: Dichotomizing Numeric Variables

Factorial Analysis of Variance in Research Articles

Advanced Topic: Figuring a Two-Way Analysis of Variance

Advanced Topic: Power and Effect Size in the Factorial Analysis of Variance

Summary

Key Terms

Example Worked-Out Problems

Practice Problems

Using SPSS

Chapter Note

**Chapter 11: Correlation**

Graphing Correlations: The Scatter Diagram

Patterns in Correlation

The Correlation Coefficient

Significance of a Correlation Coefficient

Correlation and Causality

Issues in Interpreting the Correlation Coefficient

Effect Size and Power for the Correlation Coefficient

Controversy: What is a Large Correlation?

Correlation in Research Articles

Summary

Key Terms

Example Worked-Out Problems

Practice Problems

Using SPSS

Chapter Note

**Chapter 12: Prediction**

Predictor (*X*) and Criterion (*Y*) Variables

The Linear Prediction Rule

The Regression Line

Finding the Best Linear Prediction Rule

The Least Squared Error Principle

Issues in Prediction

Multiple Regression

Limitations of Prediction

Controversy: Unstandardized and Standardized Regression Coefficients; Comparing Predictors

Prediction in Research Articles

Advanced Topic: Error and Proportionate Reduction in Error

Summary

Key Terms

Example Worked-Out Problems

Practice Problems

Using SPSS

Chapter Note

**Chapter 13: Chi-square tests**

The Chi-Square Statistic and the Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit

The Chi-Square Test for Independence

Assumptions for Chi-Square Tests

Effect Size and Power for Chi-Tests for Independence

Controversy: The Minimum Expected Frequency

Chi-Square Tests in Research Articles

Summary

Key Terms

Example Worked-Out Problems

Practice Problems

Using SPSS

Chapter Note

**Chapter 14: Strategies when population distributions are not normal: Data ****transformations and**

** rank-order ****tests**

Assumptions in the Standard Hypothesis-Testing Procedures

Data Transformations

Rank-Order Tests

Comparison of Methods

Controversy: Computer-Intensive Methods

Data Transformations and Rank-Order Tests in Research Articles

Summary

Key Terms

Example Worked-Out Problems

Practice Problems

Using SPSS

Chapter Note

**Chapter 15: Integration and the general linear model and Making sense of advanced ****statistical **

** procedures in research articles**

The General Linear

Partial Correlation

Reliability

Multilevel Modeling

Factor Analysis

Casual Modeling

Procedures That Compare Groups

Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA)

Overview of Statistical Techniques

Controversy: Should Statistics Be Controversial?

How to Read Results Using Unfamiliar Statistical Techniques

Summary

Key Terms

Example Worked-Out Problems

Practice Problems

Using SPSS

Chapter Note