## Table of Contents

**1. Problem Solving and Critical Thinking**

1.1 Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

1.2 Estimation, Graphs, and Mathematical Models

1.3 Problem Solving

**2. Set Theory**

2.1 Basic Set Concepts

2.2 Subsets

2.3 Venn Diagrams and Set Operations

2.4 Set Operations and Venn Diagrams with Three Sets

2.5 Survey Problems

**3. Logic**

3.1 Statements, Negations, and Quantified Statements

3.2 Compound Statements and Connectives

3.3 Truth Tables for Negation, Conjunction, and Disjunction

3.4 Truth Tables for the Conditional and the Biconditional

3.5 Equivalent Statements and Variations of Conditional Statements

3.6 Negations of Conditional Statements and De Morgan’s Laws

3.7 Arguments and Truth Tables

3.8 Arguments and Euler Diagrams

**4. Number Representation and Calculation**

4.1 Our Hindu-Arabic System and Early Positional Systems

4.2 Number Bases in Positional Systems

4.3 Computation in Positional Systems

4.4 Looking Back at Early Numeration Systems

**5. Number Theory and the Real Number System**

5.1 Number Theory: Prime and Composite Numbers

5.2 The Integers; Order of Operations

5.3 The Rational Numbers

5.4 The Irrational Numbers

5.5 Real Numbers and Their Properties; Clock Addition

5.6 Exponents and Scientific Notation

5.7 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences

**6. Algebra: Equations and Inequalities**

6.1 Algebraic Expressions and Formulas

6.2 Linear Equations in One Variable and Proportions

6.3 Applications of Linear Equations

6.4 Linear Inequalities in One Variable

6.5 Quadratic Equations

**7. Algebra: Graphs, Functions, and Linear Systems**

7.1 Graphing and Functions

7.2 Linear Functions and Their Graphs

7.3 Systems of Linear Equations in Two Variables

7.4 Linear Inequalities in Two Variables

7.5 Linear Programming

7.6 Modeling Data: Exponential, Logarithmic, and Quadratic Functions

**8. Personal Finance**

8.1 Percent, Sales Tax, and Discounts

8.2 Income Tax

8.3 Simple Interest

8.4 Compound Interest

8.5 Annuities, Methods of Saving, and Investments

8.6 Cars

8.7 The Cost of Home Ownership

8.8 Credit Cards

**9. Measurement**

9.1 Measuring Length; The Metric System

9.2 Measuring Area and Volume

9.3 Measuring Weight and Temperature

**10. Geometry**

10.1 Points, Lines, Planes, and Angles

10.2 Triangles

10.3 Polygons, Perimeter, and Tessellations

10.4 Area and Circumference

10.5 Volume and Surface Area

10.6 Right Triangle Trigonometry

10.7 Beyond Euclidean Geometry

**11. Counting Methods and Probability Theory**

11.1 The Fundamental Counting Principle

11.2 Permutations

11.3 Combinations

11.4 Fundamentals of Probability

11.5 Probability with the Fundamental Counting Principle, Permutations, and Combinations

11.6 Events Involving Not and Or; Odds

11.7 Events Involving And; Conditional Probability

11.8 Expected Value

**12. Statistics**

12.1 Sampling, Frequency Distributions, and Graphs

12.2 Measures of Central Tendency

12.3 Measures of Dispersion

12.4 The Normal Distribution

12.5 Problem Solving with the Normal Distribution

12.6 Scatter Plots, Correlation, and Regression Lines

**13. Voting and Apportionment**

13.1 Voting Methods

13.2 Flaws of Voting Methods

13.3 Apportionment Methods

13.4 Flaws of Apportionment Methods

**14. Graph Theory**

14.1 Graphs, Paths, and Circuits

14.2 Euler Paths and Euler Circuits

14.3 Hamilton Paths and Hamilton Circuits

14.4 Trees

Answers to Selected Exercises