## Table of Contents

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 1

APPLICATIONS LIST xii

PREFACE xiv

AVAILABLE SUPPLEMENTS AND MEDIA xxii

NOTES TO STUDENTS (AND INSTRUCTORS) ON THE FORMAT xxiv

COLOR USE: VECTORS, FIELDS, AND SYMBOLS xxv

CHAPTER1: INTRODUCTION, MEASUREMENT, ESTIMATING

1—1 The Nature of Science

1—2 Models, Theories, and Laws

1—3 Measurement and Uncertainty; Significant Figures

1—4 Units, Standards, and the SI System

1—5 Converting Units

1—6 Order of Magnitude: Rapid Estimating

*1—7 Dimensions and Dimensional Analysis

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 2: DESCRIBING MOTION: KINEMATICS IN ONE DIMENSION

2—1 Reference Frames and Displacement

2—2 Average Velocity

2—3 Instantaneous Velocity

2—4 Acceleration

2—5 Motion at Constant Acceleration

2—6 Solving Problems

2—7 Freely Falling Objects

*2—8 Variable Acceleration; Integral Calculus

*2—9 Graphical Analysis and Numerical Integration

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 3: KINEMATICS IN TWO OR THREE DIMENSIONS; VECTORS

3—1 Vectors and Scalars

3—2 Addition of Vectors–Graphical Methods

3—3 Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar

3—4 Adding Vectors by Components

3—5 Unit Vectors

3—6 Vector Kinematics

3—7 Projectile Motion

3—8 Solving Problems Involving Projectile Motion

3—9 Relative Velocity

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 4: DYNAMICS: NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION

4—1 Force

4—2 Newton’s First Law of Motion

4—3 Mass

4—4 Newton’s Second Law of Motion

4—5 Newton’s Third Law of Motion

4—6 Weight–the Force of Gravity; and the Normal Force

4—7 Solving Problems with Newton’s Laws: Free-Body Diagrams

4—8 Problem Solving–A General Approach

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 5: USING NEWTON’S LAWS: FRICTION, CIRCULAR MOTION, DRAG FORCES

5—1 Applications of Newton’s Laws Involving Friction

5—2 Uniform Circular Motion–Kinematics

5—3 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion

5—4 Highway Curves: Banked and Unbanked

*5—5 Nonuniform Circular Motion

*5—6 Velocity-Dependent Forces: Drag and Terminal Velocity

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 6: GRAVITATION AND NEWTON’S6 SYNTHESIS

6—1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation

6—2 Vector Form of Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation

6—3 Gravity Near the Earth’s Surface; Geophysical Applications

6—4 Satellites and “Weightlessness”

6—5 Kepler’s Laws and Newton’s Synthesis

*6—6 Gravitational Field

6—7 Types of Forces in Nature

*6—8 Principle of Equivalence; Curvature of Space; Black Holes

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 7: WORK AND ENERGY

7—1 Work Done by a Constant Force

7—2 Scalar Product of Two Vectors

7—3 Work Done by a Varying Force

7—4 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Principle

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 8: CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

8—1 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces

8—2 Potential Energy

8—3 Mechanical Energy and Its Conservation

8—4 Problem Solving Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy

8—5 The Law of Conservation of Energy

8—6 Energy Conservation with Dissipative Forces: Solving Problems

8—7 Gravitational Potential Energy and Escape Velocity

8—8 Power

*8—9 Potential Energy Diagrams; Stable and Unstable Equilibrium

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 9: LINEAR MOMENTUM

9—1 Momentum and Its Relation to Force

9—2 Conservation of Momentum

9—3 Collisions and Impulse

9—4 Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Collisions

9—5 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension

9—6 Inelastic Collisions

9—7 Collisions in Two or Three Dimensions

9—8 Center of Mass (CM)

9—9 Center of Mass and Translational Motion

*9—10 Systems of Variable Mass; Rocket Propulsion

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 10: ROTATIONAL MOTION

10—1 Angular Quantities

10—2 Vector Nature of Angular Quantities

10—3 Constant Angular Acceleration

10—4 Torque

10—5 Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia

10—6 Solving Problems in Rotational Dynamics

10—7 Determining Moments of Inertia

10—8 Rotational Kinetic Energy

10—9 Rotational Plus Translational Motion; Rolling

*10—10 Why Does a Rolling Sphere Slow Down?

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 11: ANGULAR MOMENTUM; GENERAL ROTATION

11—1 Angular Momentum–Object Rotating About a Fixed Axis

11—2 Vector Cross Product; Torque as a Vector

11—3 Angular Momentum of a Particle

11—4 Angular Momentum and Torque for a System of Particles; General Motion

11—5 Angular Momentum and Torque for a Rigid Object

11—6 Conservation of Angular Momentum

*11—7 The Spinning Top and Gyroscope

*11—8 Rotating Frames of Reference; Inertial Forces

*11—9 The Coriolis Effect

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 12: STATIC EQUILIBRIUM; ELASTICITY AND FRACTURE

12—1 The Conditions for Equilibrium

12—2 Solving Statics Problems

12—3 Stability and Balance

12—4 Elasticity; Stress and Strain

12—5 Fracture

*12—6 Trusses and Bridges

*12—7 Arches and Domes

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 13: FLUIDS

13—1 Phases of Matter

13—2 Density and Specific Gravity

13—3 Pressure in Fluids

13—4 Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure

13—5 Pascal’s Principle

13—6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer

13—7 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle

13—8 Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity

13—9 Bernoulli’s Equation

13—10 Applications of Bernoulli’s Principle: Torricelli, Airplanes, Baseballs, TIA

*13—11 Viscosity

*13—12 Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille’s Equation, Blood Flow

*13—13 Surface Tension and Capillarity

*13—14 Pumps, and the Heart

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 14: OSCILLATIONS

14—1 Oscillations of a Spring

14—2 Simple Harmonic Motion

14—3 Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator

14—4 Simple Harmonic Motion Related to Uniform Circular Motion

14—5 The Simple Pendulum

*14—6 The Physical Pendulum and the Torsion Pendulum

14—7 Damped Harmonic Motion

14—8 Forced Oscillations; Resonance

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 15: WAVE MOTION

15—1 Characteristics of Wave Motion

15—2 Types of Waves: Transverse and Longitudinal

15—3 Energy Transported by Waves

15—4 Mathematical Representation of a Traveling Wave

*15—5 The Wave Equation

15—6 The Principle of Superposition

15—7 Reflection and Transmission

15—8 Interference

15—9 Standing Waves; Resonance

*15—10 Refraction

*15—11 Diffraction

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 16: SOUND

16—1 Characteristics of Sound

16—2 Mathematical Representation of Longitudinal Waves

16—3 Intensity of Sound: Decibels

16—4 Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columns

*16—5 Quality of Sound, and Noise; Superposition

16—6 Interference of Sound Waves; Beats

16—7 Doppler Effect

*16—8 Shock Waves and the Sonic Boom

*16—9 Applications: Sonar, Ultrasound, and Medical Imaging

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 17: TEMPERATURE, THERMAL EXPANSION, AND THE IDEAL GAS LAW

17—1 Atomic Theory of Matter

17—2 Temperature and Thermometers

17—3 Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

17—4 Thermal Expansion

*17—5 Thermal Stresses

17—6 The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature

17—7 The Ideal Gas Law

17—8 Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Law

17—9 Ideal Gas Law in Terms of Molecules: Avogadro’s Number

*17—10 Ideal Gas Temperature Scale–a Standard

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 18: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES

18—1 The Ideal Gas Law and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperature

18—2 Distribution of Molecular Speeds

18—3 Real Gases and Changes of Phase

18—4 Vapor Pressure and Humidity

*18—5 Van der Waals Equation of State

*18—6 Mean Free Path

*18—7 Diffusion

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 19: HEAT AND THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

19—1 Heat as Energy Transfer

19—2 Internal Energy

19—3 Specific Heat

19—4 Calorimetry–Solving Problems

19—5 Latent Heat

19—6 The First Law of Thermodynamics

19—7 Applying the First Law of Thermodynamics; Calculating the Work

19—8 Molar Specific Heats for Gases, and the Equipartition of Energy

19—9 Adiabatic Expansion of a Gas

19—10 Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, Radiation

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 20: SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

20—1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics–Introduction

20—2 Heat Engines

20—3 Reversible and Irreversible Processes; the Carnot Engine

20—4 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps

20—5 Entropy

20—6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

20—7 Order to Disorder

20—8 Unavailability of Energy; Heat Death

*20—9 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law

*20—10 Thermodynamic Temperature Scale; Absolute Zero and the Third Law of Thermodynamics

*20—11 Thermal Pollution, Global Warming, and Energy Resources

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 21: ELECTRIC CHARGE AND ELECTRIC FIELD

21—1 Static Electricity; Electric Charge and Its Conservation

21—2 Electric Charge in the Atom

21—3 Insulators and Conductors

21—4 Induced Charge; the Electroscope

21—5 Coulomb’s Law

21—6 The Electric Field

21—7 Electric Field Calculations for Continuous Charge Distributions

21—8 Field Lines

21—9 Electric Fields and Conductors

21—10 Motion of a Charged Particle in an Electric Field

21—11 Electric Dipoles

*21—12 Electric Forces in Molecular Biology; DNA

*21—13 Photocopy Machines and Computer Printers Use Electrostatics

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 22: GAUSS’S LAW

22—1 Electric Flux

22—2 Gauss’s Law

22—3 Applications of Gauss’s Law

*22—4 Experimental Basis of Gauss’s and Coulomb’s Law

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 23: ELECTRIC POTENTIAL

23—1 Electric Potential Energy and Potential Difference

23—2 Relation between Electric Potential and Electric Field

23—3 Electric Potential Due to Point Charges

23—4 Potential Due to Any Charge Distribution

23—5 Equipotential Surfaces

23—6 Electric Dipole Potential

23—7 E Determined from *V*

23—8 Electrostatic Potential Energy; the Electron Volt

23—9 Cathode Ray Tube: TV and Computer Monitors, Oscilloscope

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 24: CAPACITANCE, DIELECTRICS, ELECTRIC ENERGY STORAGE

24—1 Capacitors

24—2 Determination of Capacitance

24—3 Capacitors in Series and Parallel

24—4 Electric Energy Storage

24—5 Dielectrics

*24—6 Molecular Description of Dielectrics

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 25: ELECTRIC CURRENTS AND RESISTANCE

25—1 The Electric Battery

25—2 Electric Current

25—3 Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Resistors

25—4 Resistivity

25—5 Electric Power

25—6 Power in Household Circuits

25—7 Alternating Current

25—8 Microscopic View of Electric Current: Current Density and Drift Velocity

*25—9 Superconductivity

*25—10 Electrical Conduction in the Nervous System

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 26: DC CIRCUITS

26-1 EMF and Terminal Voltage

26-2 Resistors in Series and in Parallel

26-3 Kirchoff’s Rules

26-4 EMFs in Series and in Parallel; Charging a Battery

26-5 Circuits Containing Resistor and Capacitor (*RC* Circuits)

26-6 Electric Hazards

*26-7 Ammeters and Voltmeters

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 27: MAGNETISM

27-1 Magnets and Magnetic Fields

27-2 Electric Currents Produce Magnetic Fields

27-3 Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of

27-4 Force on an Electric Charge Moving in a Magnetic Field

27-5 Torque on a Current Loop; Magnetic Dipole Moment

*27-6 Applications: Galvanometers, Motors, Loudspeakers

27-7 Discover and Properties of the Electron

*27-8 The Hall Effect

*27-9 Mass Spectrometer

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 28: SOURCES OF MAGNETIC FIELD

28-1 Magnetic Field Due to a Straight Wire

28-2 Force between Two Parallel Wires

28-3 Definitions of the Ampere and the Coulomb

28-4 Ampere’s Law

28-5 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid and a Toroid

28-6 Biot-Savart Law

*28-7 Magnetic materials–Ferromagnetism

*28-8 Electromagnets and Solenoids—Applications

*28-9 Magnetic Fields in Magnetic Materials; Hysteresis

*28-10 Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 29: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND FARADAY’S LAW

29-1 Induced EMF

29-2 Faraday’s Law of Induction; Lenz’s Law

29-3 EMF Induced in a Moving Conductor

29-4 Electric Generators

*29-5 Back EMF and Counter Torque; Eddy Currents

29-6 Transformers and Transmission of Power

29-7 A Changing Magnetic Flux Produces an Electric Field

*29-8 Applications of Induction: Sound Systems, Computer Memory, Seismograph, GFCI

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 30: INDUCTANCE, ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS, AND AC CIRCUITS

30-1 Mutual Inductance

30-2 Self-Inductance

30-3 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field

30-4 *LR* Circuits

30-5 *LC* Circuits and Electromagnetic Oscillations

30-6 *LC *Oscillations with Resistance (*LRC* Circuit)

30-7 AC Circuits with AC Source

30-8 *LRC *Series AC Circuit

30-9 Resonance in AC Circuits

*30-10 Impedance Matching

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 31: MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

31-1 Changing Electric Fields Produce Magnetic Fields; Ampere’s Law and Displacement Current

31-2 Gauss’s Law for Magnetism

31-3 Maxwell’s Equations

31-4 Production of Electromagnetic Waves

*31-5 Electromagnetic Waves, and Their Speed, from Maxwell’s Equations

31-6 Light as an Electromagnetic Wave and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

31-7 Measuring the Speed of Light

31-8 Energy in EM Waves; the Poynting Vector

*31-9 Radiation Pressure

*31-10 Radio and Television; Wireless Communication

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 32: LIGHT: REFLECTION AND REFRACTION

32-1 The Ray Model of Light

32-2 The Speed of Light and Index of Refraction

32-3 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror

32-4 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors

32-5 Refraction: Snell’s Law

32-6 Visible Spectrum and Dispersion

32-7 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics

*32-8 Refraction at a Spherical Surface

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 33: LENSES AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS

33-1 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing

33-2 The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification

33-3 Combinations of Lenses

33-4 Lensmaker’s Equation

33-5 Cameras, Film and Digital

33-6 The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses

33-7 Magnifying Glass

33-8 Telescopes

*33-9 Compound Microscope

*33-10 Aberrations of Lenses and Mirrors

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 34: THE WAVE NATURE OF LIGHT; INTERFERENCE

34-1 Waves Versus Particles; Huygens’ Principle and Diffraction

34-2 Huygens’ Principle and the Law of Refraction

34-3 Interference–Young’s Double-Slit Experiment

34-4 Intensity in the Double-Slit Interference Pattern

34-5 Interference in Thin Films

*34-6 Michelson Interferometer

*34-7 Luminous Intensity

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 35: DIFFRACTION AND POLARIZATION

35-1 Diffraction by a Single Slit or Disk

35-2 Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction Pattern

35-3 Diffraction in the Double-Slit Experiment

35-4 Limits of Resolution; Circular Apertures

35-5 Resolution of Telescopes and Microscopes; the λ Limit

*35-6 Resolution of the Human Eye and Useful Magnification

35-7 Diffraction Grating

*35-8 The Spectrometer and Spectroscopy

*35-9 Peak Widths and Resolving Power for a Diffraction Grating

*35-10 X-Rays and X-Ray Diffraction

35-11 Polarization

*35-12 Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)

*35-13 Scattering of Light by the Atmosphere

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 36: SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

36-1 Galilean—Newtonian Relativity

*36-2 The Michelson-Morley Experiment

36-3 Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity

36-4 Simultaneity

36-5 Time Dilation and the Twin Paradox

36-6 Length Contraction

36-7 Four-Dimensional Space-Time

36-8 Galilean and Lorentz Transformations

36-9 Relativistic Momentum and Mass

36-10 The Ultimate Speed

36-11 Energy and Mass; *E=mc*^{2}

36-12 Doppler Shift for Light

36-13 The Impact of Special Relativity

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 37: EARLY QUANTUM THEORY AND MODELS OF THE ATOM

37-1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

37-2 Photon Theory of Light and the Photoelectric Effect

37-3 Photons and the Compton Effect

37-4 Photon Interactions; Pair Production

37-5 Wave-Particle Duality; the Principle of Complementarity

37-6 Wave Nature of Matter

*37-7 Electron Microscopes

37-8 Early Models of the Atom

37-9 Atomic Spectra: Key to the Structure of the Atom

37-10 The Bohr Model

37-11 DeBroglie’s Hypothesis Applied to Atoms

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 38: QUANTUM MECHANICS

38-1 Quantum Mechanics–A New Theory

38-2 The Wave Function and Its Interpretation; the Double-Slit Experiment

38-3 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

38-4 Philosophic Implications; Probability Versus Determinism

38-5 The Schrodinger Equation in One Dimension–Time-Independent Form

*38-6 Time-Dependent Schrodinger Equation

38-7 Free Particles; Plane Waves and Wave Packets

38-8 Particle in an Infinitely Deep Square Well Potential (a Rigid Box)

*38-9 Finite Potential Well

38-10 Tunneling through a Barrier

SUMMARY

QUESTIONS

PROBLEMS

GENERAL PROBLEMS