For a one- or two-term Chemistry and Society course for non-science majors.
The text that defined the liberal arts chemistry course, Hill/Kolb remains the most visually appealing and readable introduction on the market. All material is revised and updated to reflect the latest scientific developments in a fast-changing world – with substantial changes in areas such as energy costs, alternative energy, food and fitness guidelines, modern drugs, and more.
• Media LabsGreen Chemistry essays (formerly MediaLabs) — Two-page boxes that appear at the end of each chapter:
— Cover interesting and relevant green chemistry topics at the end of chapters and provide tie-ins to the text discussions.
— Prompt students by giving questions to answer or assignments to complete.
— Enables students to learn chemistry by discovering the answers for themselves, not by just reading about them.
• Chemistry in an approachable context – Personalizes chemistry for today's students, enabling them to focus on evaluating information about real-life issues rather than memorizing rigorous theory and mathematics.
• Emphasis on critical judgment:
— Acquaints students with scientific methods.
— Helps students develop critical thinking skills.
— Encourages students to read and think critically, providing understanding about complex and controversial scientific problems.
• Both SI and the traditional English system for measurement.
New to This Edition
• The concept of green chemistry – Used throughout the book, but especially in the end-of-chapter GreenChemistryMediaLab exercises that make it easy to expand discussion of this vital topic.
• Extensive revision to key subject areas – Includes Chapter 14, Energy; Chapter 18, Fitness and Health; Chapter 19, Drugs.
• New color photographs and diagrams – Highlights the new text design and helps students visualize chemical phenomena.
• Reorganized and revised Chapter Summaries:
– Now presented by sections, with key terms highlighted for easy recognition.
– Includes figures and photographs in the summaries to aid the visual learner in revisiting important concepts.
• 25% or more new and updated End-of-Chapter Problems – Also increases variety.
• Addition of several worked-out Examples and their accompanying Exercises – Revises many of the others to improve pedagogy.
• Enhanced “Critical Thinking Exercises” in each chapter – Require the student to apply information and learning from the chapter in both concrete and abstract fashion.
• New “Collaborative Group Projects” as a part of the end-of-chapter exercises – Helps instructors to encourage collaborative work and to make group assignments.
• Updated References and Readings at the end of each chapter.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 A Science for All Seasons
1.1 Science and Technology: The Roots of Knowledge
1.2 The Baconian Dream and the Carsonian Nightmare
1.3 Science: Testable, Reproducible, Explanatory, Predictive, and Tentative
1.4 The Limitations of Science
1.5 Science and Technology: Risks and Benefits
1.6 Chemistry: Its Central Role
1.7 Solving Society’s Problems: Scientific Research
1.8 Chemistry: A Study of Matter and Its Changes
1.9 Classification of Matter
1.10 The Measurement of Matter
1.12 Energy: Heat and Temperature
1.13 Critical Thinking
Chapter 2 Atoms: Are They for Real?
2.1 Atoms: The Greek Idea
2.2 Lavoisier: The Law of Conservation of Mass
2.3 Proust: The Law of Definite Proportions
2.4 John Dalton and the Atomic Theory of Matter
2.5 Out of Chaos: The Periodic Table
2.6 Atoms: Real and Relevant
2.7 Leucippus Revisited: Molecules
Chapter 3 Atomic Structure: Images of the Invisible
3.1 Electricity and the Atom
3.2 Serendipity in Science: X-Rays and Radioactivity
3.3 Three Types of Radioactivity
3.4 Rutherford’s Experiment: The Nuclear Model of the Atom
3.5 The Nucleus: A Parts List
3.6 Electron Arrangement: The Bohr Model
3.7 Electron Arrangement: The Quantum Model
3.8 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table
3.9 Which Model to Choose?
Chapter 4 Nuclear Chemistry: The Heart of the Matter
4.1 Natural Radioactivity
4.2 Nuclear Equations
4.4 Radioisotopic Dating
4.5 Artificial Transmutation
4.6 Uses of Radioisotopes
4.7 Nuclear Medicine
4.8 Penetrating Power of Radiation
4.9 Energy from the Nucleus
4.10 The Building of the Bomb
4.11 Radioactive Fallout
4.12 Nuclear Power Plants
4.13 Thermonuclear Reactions
4.14 The Nuclear Age
Chapter 5 Chemical Bonds: The Ties That Bind
5.1 The Art of Deduction: Stable Electron Configurations
5.2 Lewis (Electron-Dot) Symbols
5.3 Sodium Reacts with Chlorine: Facts
5.4 Sodium Reacts with Chlorine: The Theory
5.5 Using Lewis Symbols: More Ionic Compounds
5.6 Formulas and Names of Binary Ionic Compounds
5.7 Covalent Bonds: Shared Electron Pairs
5.8 Unequal Sharing: Polar Covalent Bonds
5.9 Polyatomic Molecules: Water, Ammonia, and Methane
5.10 Polyatomic Ions
5.11 Rules for Writing Lewis Formulas
5.12 Odd-Electron Molecules: Free Radicals
5.13 Molecular Shapes: The VSEPR Theory
5.14 Shapes and Properties: Polar and Nonpolar Molecules
Chapter 6 Chemical Accounting: Mass and Volume Relationships
6.1 Chemical Sentences: Equations
6.2 Volume Relationships in Chemical Equations
6.3 Avogadro’s Number: 6.02 x 10^23
6.4 The Mole: “A Dozen Eggs and a Mole of Sugar, Please”
6.5 Mole and Mass Relationships in Chemical Equations
6.6 The Gas Laws
Chapter 7 Acids and Bases: Please Pass the Protons
7.1 Acids and Bases: Experimental Definitions
7.2 Acids, Bases, and Salts
7.3 Acidic and Basic Anhydrides
7.4 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
7.6 The pH Scale
7.7 Acid Rain
7.8 Antacids: A Basic Remedy
7.9 Acids and Bases in Industry and in Us
Chapter 8 Oxidation and Reduction: Burn and Unburn
8.1 Oxidation and Reduction: Three Views
8.2 Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
8.3 Electrochemistry: Cells and Batteries
8.5 Explosive Reactions
8.6 Oxygen: An Abundant and Essential Oxidizing Agent
8.7 Other Common Oxidizing Agents
8.8 Some Reducing Agents of Interest
8.9 A Closer Look at Hydrogen
8.10 Oxidation, Reduction, and Living Things
Chapter 9 Organic Chemistry: The Infinite Variety of Carbon Compounds
9.1 The Unique Carbon Atom
9.3 Cyclic Hydrocarbons: Rings and Things
9.4 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons: Alkenes and Alkynes
9.5 Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Benzene and Relatives
9.6 Chlorinated Hydrocarbons: Many Uses, Some Hazards
9.7 The Functional Group
9.8 The Alcohol Family
9.11 Aldehydes and Ketones
9.12 Carboxylic Acids
9.13 Esters: The Sweet Smell of RCOOR'
9.14 Amines and Amides
9.15 Heterocyclic Compounds: Alkaloids and Others
Chapter 10 Polymers: Giant Among Molecules
10.1 Polymerization: Making Big Ones Out of Little Ones
10.2 Natural Polymers
10.3 Celluloid: Billiard Balls and Collars
10.4 Polyethylene: From the Battle of Britain to Bread Bags
10.5 Addition Polymerization: One + One + One + Gives One!
10.6 Rubber and Other Elastomers
10.7 Condensation Polymers: Splitting Out Water
10.8 Properties of Polymers
10.9 Disposal of Plastics
10.10 Plastics and Fire Hazards
10.11 Plasticizers and Pollution
10.12 Plastics and the Future
Chapter 11 Chemistry of Earth: Metals and Minerals
11.1 Spaceship Earth: The Materials Manifest
11.2 The Lithosphere: Organic and Inorganic
11.3 Meeting Our Needs: From Sticks to Bricks
11.4 Silicates and the Shapes of Things
11.5 Modified Silicates: Ceramics, Glass, and Cement
11.6 Metals and Ores
11.7 Running Out of Everything: Earth’s Dwindling Resources
11.8 Land Pollution: Solid Wastes
11.9 The Three R’s of Garbage: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
11.10 How Crowded Is Our Spaceship?
Chapter 12 Air: The Breath of Life
12.1 Earth’s Atmosphere:Divisions and Composition
12.2 Chemistry of the Atmosphere
12.3 Temperature Inversion
12.4 Natural Pollution
12.5 The Air Our Ancestors Breathed
12.6 Pollution Goes Global
12.7 Coal + Fire ¿ Industrial Smog
12.8 Automobile Emissions
12.9 Photochemical Smog: Making Haze While the Sun Shines
12.10 Acid Rain: Air Pollution ® Water Pollution
12.11 The Inside Story: Indoor Air Pollution
12.12 Ozone: The Double-edged Sword
12.13 Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect
Chapter 13 Water: River of Life; Seas of Sorrows
13.1 Water: Some Unique Properties
13.2 Water, Water, Everywhere
13.3 The Water Cycle and Natural Contaminants
13.4 Chemical and Biological Contamination
13.5 An Example of Industrial Pollution: Building a Car
13.6 Groundwater Contamination à Tainted Tap Water
13.7 Making Water Fit to Drink
13.8 Water Treatment Plants
13.9 From Wastewater to Drinking Water
13.10 The Newest Soft Drink: Bottled Water
13.11 Alternative Sewage Treatment Systems
13.12 We’re the Solution to Water Pollution
Chapter 14 Energy: A Fuels Paradise
14.1 Heavenly Sunlight Flooding Earth with Energy
14.2 Energy and Chemical Reactions
14.3 Energy and the First Law:Energy Is Conserved
14.4 Energy and the Second Law:Things Are Going to Get Worse
14.5 People Power: Early Uses of Energy
14.6 Reserves and Consumption Rates of Fossil Fuels
14.7 Coal: The Carbon Rock of Ages
14.8 Natural Gas: Mostly Methane
14.9 Petroleum: Liquid Hydrocarbons
14.10 Convenient Energy: Electricity
14.11 Nuclear Fission
14.12 Nuclear Fusion: The Sun in a Magnetic Bottle
14.13 Harnessing the Sun: Solar Energy
14.14 Biomass: Photosynthesis for Fuel
14.15 Hydrogen: Light and Powerful
14.16 Other Renewable Energy Sources
14.17 Energy: How Much Is Too Much?
Chapter 15 Biochemistry: A Molecular View of Life
15.1 The Cell
15.2 Energy in Biological Systems
15.3 Carbohydrates: A Storehouse of Energy
15.4 Fats and Other Lipids
15.5 Proteins: Polymers of Amino Acids
15.6 The Peptide Bond: Peptides and Proteins
15.7 Structure of Proteins
15.8 Enzymes: Exquisite Precision Machines
15.9 Nucleic Acids: Parts and Structure
15.10 DNA: Self-Replication
15.11 RNA: Protein Synthesis and the Genetic Code
15.12 The Human Genome
Chapter 16 Food: Molecular Gastronomy
16.1 Carbohydrates in the Diet
16.2 Fats and Cholesterol
16.3 Proteins: Muscle and Much More
16.4 Minerals: Inorganic Chemicals and Life
16.5 The Vitamins: Vital, but Not All Are Amines
16.6 Other Essentials: Fiber and Water
16.7 Starvation and Fasting
16.8 Additives to Enhance Our Food
16.9 Poisons in Our Food
16.10 A World Without Food Additives
16.11 Green Plants: Sun-Powered Food-Making Machines
16.12 Farming with Chemicals: Fertilizers
16.13 The War Against Pests
16.14 Biological Insect Controls
16.15 Herbicides and Defoliants
16.16 Sustainable Agriculture
16.17 Some Malthusian Mathematics
16.18 Can We Feed a Hungry World?
Chapter 17 Household Chemicals: Helps and Hazards
17.1 A History of Cleaning
17.2 Fat + Lye ® Soap
17.3 Synthetic Detergents
17.4 Laundry Detergent Formulations
17.5 Dishwashing Detergents
17.6 Fabric Softeners: Quaternary Ammonium Salts
17.7 Laundry Bleaches: Whiter Whites
17.8 All-Purpose Cleaning Products
17.9 Special-Purpose Cleaners
17.10 Organic Solvents in the Home
17.13 Cosmetics: Personal Care Chemicals
17.14 Toothpaste: Soap with Grit and Flavor
Chapter 18 Fitness and Health: Some Chemical Connections
18.1 Calories: Quantity and Quality
18.2 Vitamins and Minerals
18.3 Body Fluids and Electrolytes
18.4 Weight-Loss Diets
18.5 Exercise for Weight Loss
18.6 Measuring Fitness
18.7 Some Chemistry of Muscles
18.8 Drugs and the Athlete
18.9 Exercise and the Brain
18.10 No Smoking
Chapter 19 Drugs: Chemical Cures, Comforts and Cautions
19.1 Scientific Drug Design
19.2 Pain Relievers: Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)
19.3 Chemistry, Allergies, and the Common Cold
19.4 Antibacterial Drugs
19.5 Viruses and Antiviral Drugs
19.6 Chemicals Against Cancer
19.7 Hormones: The Regulators
19.8 Chemistry and Social Revolution: The Pill
19.9 Drugs for the Heart
19.10 Drugs and the Mind
19.11 Some Chemistry of the Nervous System
19.12 Brain Amines: Depression and Mania
19.14 Depressant Drugs
19.16 Antianxiety Agents
19.17 Stimulant Drugs
19.18 Psychedelic Drugs
19.19 Drug Problems
19.20 The Placebo Effect
19.21 New Uses for Old Drugs
Chapter 20 Poisons: Chemical Toxicology
20.1 Natural Poisons
20.2 Corrosive Poisons: A Closer Look
20.3 Poisons Affecting Oxygen Transport and Oxidative Processes
20.4 Make Your Own Poison: Fluoroacetic Acid
20.5 Heavy Metal Poisons
20.6 More Chemistry of the Nervous System
20.7 The Lethal Dose
20.8 Your Liver As a Detox Facility
20.9 Chemical Carcinogens: Slow Poisons
20.10 Three Ways to Test for Carcinogens
20.11 Birth Defects: Teratogens
20.12 Hazardous Wastes
20.13 What Price Poisons?
Appendix A: A Review of Measurements and Mathematics.
The International System of Measurement
Exponential (Scientific) Notation
Precision, Accuracy, and Significant Figures
Calculations Involving Temperature and Heat
Appendix B: Glossary.
Appendix C: Answers.
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