Note: This is the bound book only and does not include access to the Enhanced Pearson eText. To order the Enhanced Pearson eText packaged with a bound book, use ISBN 0134539400.
Designed for students in graduate education courses, reading specialists, and school district personnel who offer in-service work in reading assessment or who are involved in designing assessment procedures for a school or district (K-12).
The market-leading, reliable, and easy-to-use informal assessment instrument.
The QRI-6 continues to emphasize the authentic assessment of children’s reading abilities—from the earliest emergent readers to advanced readers. This popular resource provides graded word lists and numerous passages designed to assess a student’s oral reading accuracy, rate of reading, and comprehension of passages read orally and silently. Several unique features set it apart from other resources in the field, including narrative and expository passages at each level from pre-primer through high school, as well as all self-contained selections that are highly representative of the structure and topics of materials found in basal readers and content-area textbooks. For example, passages at the pre-primer through second grade levels are presented with pictures, and maps and illustrations are part of the expository selections at fourth grade through high school levels.
The QRI-6 measures comprehension in several ways that allow an examiner to label a passage as familiar or unfamiliar to each student: by analyzing the student’s retelling or summarization; by looking at the student’s answers to explicit and implicit comprehension questions; through the answers to complex inference questions recommended by the Common Core State Standards; through the use of look-backs, which separate what readers remember from what they comprehend; and through the use of think-alouds at the sixth grade level and above to analyze the student’s thoughts during reading. These measurement tools presented in the QRI-6 contribute to its widespread popularity as a superb informal reading inventory.
Invigorate learning with the Enhanced Pearson eText
The Enhanced Pearson eText provides a rich, interactive learning environment designed to improve student mastery of content with embedded videos, audio clips, and forms & figures. The Enhanced Pearson eText is also available without a print version.
Additional text benefits include:
- Highly respected and widely used in previous editions, the QRI-6 includes a number of advantages over competitors in the field, among them:
- Range continues through high school–narrative and expository passages are included for each pre-primer through the high school level.
- Prior knowledge and retelling are measured.
- Materials are included from social studies and sciences, including pictures or diagrams from Grade 4 and higher.
- New passages at fourth grade and up include complex comprehension questions based on the Common Core, allowing more in-depth assessment.
- The QRI-6 provides a number diagnostic options that serve a variety of purposes including:
- Identifying reading levels to match students to appropriate materials.
- Verifying a suspected reading problem.
- Determining reader strengths and needs.
- Suggesting directions for intervention instruction.
- Numerous additional aids help assess comprehension, among them:
- Clear examples show how to use the QRI in reading interventions and in testing to demonstrate student growth.
- “Look-Backs” test students on questions they’ve missed.
- “Think-Alouds” ask readers to describe what they’re thinking at a particular section of text.
- A technical manual addresses alternate-form reliability, inter-scorer reliability, reliability of diagnostic judgments, concurrent validity, construct validity, and classification validity.
- Maps and illustrations further illuminate expository selections for Grades 4 through 12.
- Features that make this edition even more reliable and user-friendly include:
- NEW! An up-to-date research rationale for all elements of the reading assessment is provided in a current, condensed research review in Section 2.
- NEW! A simplified system of oral reading miscue analysis focuses on students’ self-correction behavior, making it easier for the novice to use the assessment (Section 7).
- NEW! A prosody rating system has been added to materials from first through sixth grade to allow users to separate fast reading from reading for meaning (Section 7 and on all materials from Grades 1 through 6).
- NEW! A new table indicating how the QRI-6 can be used to measure the Foundational Skills of the Common Core State Standards helps users reduce testing by using the QRI-6, rather than additio
New to This Edition
Invigorate learning with the Enhanced Pearson eText
The Enhanced Pearson eText provides a rich, interactive learning environment designed to improve student mastery of content with the following multimedia features:
- Embedded videos. Video clips demonstrate the administrative procedures of the QRI-6. (See pages 26, 65, and 66 for examples.)
- Audio clips. Audio recordings of reading passages provide opportunities to practice scoring oral reading miscues, retelling, and comprehension. (See pages 37, 38, and 66 for examples.)
- Forms and Figures. Forms and Figures are readily accessible, including scored think-alouds and figures that can be printed for use in administration and scoring. (See pages 27, 66, and 393 for examples.)
- More detailed information about Video clips, Audio clips, and other resources can be found on p. vii of the QRI-6.
Key content changes include:
- An up-to-date research rationale for all elements of the reading assessment is provided in a current, condensed research review in Section 2.
- A simplified system of oral reading miscue analysis focuses on students’ self-correction behavior, making it easier for the novice to use the assessment (Section 7).
- A prosody rating system has been added to materials from first through sixth grade to allow users to separate fast reading from reading for meaning (Section 7 and on all materials from Grades 1 through 6).
- A new table indicating how the QRI-6 can be used to measure the Foundational Skills of the Common Core State Standards helps users reduce testing by using the QRI-6, rather than additional assessments (Section 7).
- New, longer passages added to Levels 4 through high school allow more complex questions to be asked (Section 13).
- The retelling sheet now includes statements that must be recalled for an inference question to be answered correctly, allowing diagnosis of memory difficulties vs. inferencing difficulties (Sections 12 and 13).
Table of Contents
QRI-6 Features of the eText vii
Section1 Description of the Qualitative Reading
The Word Lists 1
The Passages 2
Level-Diagnostic Passages 2
Non-Think-Aloud Option 4
Inference-Diagnostic Passages 4
Section 2 A Research Perspective 5
Factors Related to Comprehension 5
Inferential Question Types 5
Text Structure 7
Prior Knowledge 9
Oral and Silent Reading Comprehension 10
Retelling and Summarization 11
Factors Related to Word Identification 13
Knowledge of Letter–Sound Matching 13
Miscue Analysis 14
Oral Reading Fluency and Comprehension 15
Fluency: Beyond Speed and Automaticity 16
Factors Related to the Use of an Informal Reading Inventory 17
Passage Leveling 17
Response to Intervention (RtI) 18
The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) 20
Administration and Scoring of the QRI-6
Section 3 Administration and Scoring of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6: Determining Reading Levels 22
How Are Reading Levels Determined? 22
The Independent Level 22
The Instructional Level 22
The Frustration Level 23
Level Variety 23
How Do I Go about Finding an Instructional Reading Level? 24
Determining Reader Strengths and Needs 25
Documenting Reader Growth 25
Section 4 Administration of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6: Initial Activities 26
First Steps 26
Guidelines for Administration 27
Level-Diagnostic Passages 27
Inference-Diagnostic Passages 28
Section 5 Administration and Scoring of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6: The Word Lists 29
Purposes for Administering the Word Lists 29
Estimating the Starting Point for Passage Administration 29
Estimating Automatic Word Identification 29
Estimating Knowledge of Letter–Sound Matches 30
Examining Knowledge of Vowel Patterns 30
Analyzing the Differences between Word Identification in Isolation and in Context 30
Procedures for Administering the Word Lists 30
General Procedures 30
Instructions to the Student 31
The Beginning Point 31
Recording Student Responses: Accuracy and Automaticity 31
Procedures for Scoring the Word Lists 33
Estimating the Starting Point for Passage Administration 33
Estimating Automatic Word Identification 33
Reading by Analogy: Comparing Knowledge of Low-and High-Frequency Vowel Patterns 34
Additional Diagnostic Uses of the Word Lists 35
Section 6 Administration and Scoring of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6: The Passages 36
Purposes for Administering the Passages 36
Components of Assessment 36
Assessment of Prior Knowledge 36
Assessment of Oral Reading Miscues 36
Assessment of Comprehension through Unaided Recall 37
Assessment of Comprehension through Look-Backs 37
Assessment of Comprehension through Think-Alouds 37
Passage Selection 37
Section 7 Administration and Scoring of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6: Word Identification in Context: Oral Reading 39
Recording Oral Reading Miscues 39
Counting Oral Reading Miscues 41
Counting Total Accuracy 41
Counting Total Acceptability: What Is a Meaning-Change Miscue? 43
Analyzing Oral Reading Miscues: Miscue Analysis 45
Recording Miscues 45
Counting Miscues 47
Analyzing the Miscues 48
Evaluating Automaticity 48
Evaluating Prosody 50
Section 8 Administration and Scoring of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6: Comprehension 51
Level-Diagnostic Passages 51
Criteria for Determining Reading Levels 52
General Procedures 53
Retelling Examples 53
Analysis of Retelling 56
Inference-Diagnostic Passages 57
General Procedures 58
Interpretation of Ambiguous Answers 59
General Procedures 60
Scoring and Analysis 60
Jennie’s Summary 62
Peter’s Summary 63
Section 9 Administration and Scoring of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6: Assessing Strategic Reading 64
Section 10 Summarizing and Analyzing Results of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6 67
Recording Word Identification in Isolation Scores 67
Recording Oral Reading in Context Scores 67
Recording Silent Reading Scores 69
Recording Scores on the Inference-Diagnostic Passages 69
Example of Completed Student Profile Sheet 70
Analyzing the Results 71
Questions about a Student’s Reading Behavior 72
Student Examples 74
Writing the Report 76
Section 11 Specific Uses of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6 77
The Classroom Teacher: Using the QRI-6 to Estimate Individual Instructional Reading Level 77
The Classroom Teacher: Using the QRI-6 to Estimate Reading Level and Monitor Progress through Group Administration 78
The Classroom Teacher: Using the QRI-6 to Estimate Ability in Answering Inferential Questions 79
The Reading or Special Education Specialist Assessment: Using the QRI-6 to Determine Reading Level 80
Using the QRI-6 to Indicate Growth and Monitor Progress 80
Using the QRI-6 to Describe Specific Reading Behaviors as a Guide for Intervention Instruction 81
Using the QRI-6 to Assess the Common Core State Standards’ Foundational Skills 83
Using the New Inference Passages Grade 4 through
High School 83
Word Lists and Elementary Grade: Level-Diagnostic Passages
Section 12 Test Materials: Level Diagnostic
Student Word Lists 86
Examiner Word Lists 91
Pre-Primer 1 Passages
I Can (Narrative) 98
I See (Narrative) 104
Pre-Primer 2 Passages
Just Like Mom (Narrative) 109
People at Work (Expository) 114
Pre-Primer 3 Passages
Lost and Found (Narrative) 117
Spring and Fall (Narrative) 118
Examiner Copies 119
A Night in the City (Narrative) 131
Fox and Mouse (Narrative) 135
The Pig Who Learned to Read (Narrative) 139
Who Lives Near Lakes? (Expository) 142
Living and Not Living (Expository) 143
Examiner Copies 144
Level One Passages
The Surprise (Narrative) 154
Marva Finds a Friend (Narrative) 158
The Bear and the Rabbit (Narrative) 161
Air (Expository) 164
The Brain and the Five Senses (Expository) 165
Examiner Copies 166
Level Two Passages
The Family’s First Trip (Narrative) 179
The Lucky Cricket (Narrative) 180
Father’s New Game (Narrative) 184
Whales and Fish (Expository) 187
Seasons (Expository) 188
Examiner Copies 189
Level Three Passages
A Special Birthday for Rosa (Narrative) 204
The Friend (Narrative) 206
A New Friend from Europe (Narrative) 208
Cats: Lions and Tigers in Your House (Expository) 210
Where Do People Live? (Expository) 211
Wool: From Sheep to You (Expository) 212
Examiner Copies 213
Level Four Passages
Amelia Earhart (Narrative) 233
Tomie dePaola (Narrative) 234
Early Railroads (Expository) 235
Plant Structures for Survival (Expository) 236
Examiner Copies 237
Level Five Passages
Margaret Mead (Narrative) 250
Patricia McKissack (Narrative) 251
Farming on the Great Plains (Expository) 252
How Does Your Body Take in Oxygen? (Expository) 253
Examiner Copies 254
Middle School & High School:
Level Six Passages
The Mining Boom (Modeling Passage for Think-Alouds) 270
Examiner Copy 271
Abraham Lincoln 273
The Early Life of Lois Lowry 274
The Lifeline of the Nile 275
Building Pyramids (Think-Aloud Passage) 276
Temperature and Humidity 277
Clouds and Precipitation (Think-Aloud Passage) 278
Examiner Copies 280
Upper Middle School Passages
Jaime Escalanté: Teacher Extraordinaire 305
Immigration—Part 1 307
Immigration—Part 2 (Think-Aloud Passage) 309
Life Cycles of Stars—Part 1 311
Life Cycles of Stars—Part 2 (Think-Aloud Passage) 313
Examiner Copies 315
High School Passages
Where the Ashes Are—Part 1 338
Where the Ashes Are—Part 2 341
World War I—Part 1 344
World War I—Part 2 347
Characteristics of Viruses—Part 1 350
Characteristics of Viruses—Part 2 353
Examiner Copies 355
Section 13 Inference-Diagnostic Materials 392
Cynthia Rylant: The Development of an Author (Biography) 393
Linking East and West (Social Studies) 395
How Do Organisms Compete for Resources?
Examiner Copies 401
Jane Goodall, Goddess of the Apes (Biography) 414
The Rise of Cattle Drives (Social Studies) 416
The Body’s Transportation System (Science) 419
Examiner Copies 422
The Legacy of Jim Thorpe (Biography) 434
From Dynasty to Dynasty (Social Studies) 437
What Causes Weather? (Science) 440
Examiner Copies 443
Malcolm X: The Development of a Separatist (Biography) 456
A Wave of Nativism (Social Studies) 460
What Is a Comet? (Science) 463
Examiner Copies 465
The Life of Georgia O’Keeffe: The Artist and the Woman (Biography) 480
America Adjusts to Peace (Social Studies) 484
The Kingdoms of Life (Science) 487
Examiner Copies 490
Section 14 Technical Development of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6 506
Piloting the New Materials for the QRI-6 506
Previous Pilots 507
Development and Analysis of the Word-Identification Tests 508
Analysis of the Word-List Data 508
Reading by Analogy 509
Development and Analysis of the Prior-Knowledge Assessments 509
Identification of Concepts 509
Analyses of Correlations between Prior Knowledge and Other Test Components 510
Development and Analysis of the Measures of Comprehension: Level-Diagnostic Materials 510
Analyses of the Measures of Comprehension on Level-Diagnostic Passages 511
Development of the Think-Aloud Procedure 513
Development and Analysis of the Measures of Comprehension: Inference-Diagnostic Materials 514
Analyses of the Measures of Comprehension on the Inference/Diagnostic Materials 514
Development of the Passages 516
Quantitative Measures of the Difficulty of the Level-Diagnostic Passages 516
Development of the Pre-Primer through Third Grade Passages 519
Development of the Fourth through Sixth Grade Passages 520
Quantitative Measures of the Difficulty of the Inference-Diagnostic Passages 520
Comparing the Quantitative Measures of the Difficulty of the Inference/Diagnostic Materials to the Difficulty of the Level/Diagnostic Materials 521
Development of the Upper Middle School and High School Passages 521
Empirical Validation 521
Comparing Passages New to the QRI-5 to Previous Passages 521
Comparability of Level/Diagnostic vs. Inference/Diagnostic Passages at the Same Readability Level 525
The Relationship between Oral Reading Accuracy and Comprehension 525
The Pillars of Excellence in Educational Assessment 525
Reliability and Validity 525
Issues of Validity of an Informal Reading Inventory 526
Issues of Reliability of an Informal Reading Inventory 531
Cautions in Interpretation 535
Test-Retest and Alternate Form Reliability 535
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About the Author(s)
Lauren Leslie is Professor Emerita at Marquette University where she directed the Hartman Literacy and Learning Center for over a decade. In addition to the Qualitative Reading Inventory she has published two other books with JoAnne Caldwell, both published by Pearson: The Content Area Reading Assessment: A formative measure of the Common Core State Standards (Pearson, 2015), and Intervention Strategies to Follow an Informal Reading Inventory: So what should we do now? (Pearson, 2013). She has published over 20 research articles and received (with Linda Allen) the Albert J. Harris Research Award from the International Reading Association in 2001. She also received the Bielefeld Award for Professional Achievement in teaching, research, and mentoring of women faculty and students at Marquette University in 2006.
JoAnne Schudt Caldwell is currently Professor Emerita at Cardinal Stritch University. She is co-author of Content Area Reading Assessment: A Formative Measure of the Common Core State Standards, Intervention Strategies to Follow Informal Reading Assessment; So What Do I Do Now? and Reading Problems: Assessment and Teaching Strategies. She is the author of Reading Assessment: A Primer for Teachers in the Common Core Era and Comprehension Assessment: A Classroom Guide. She received her PhD from Marquette University and in 2005 received an Achievement Award from that institution.
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