For Learning Theory/Cognition and Instruction, Advanced Educational Psychology, and Introductory Educational Psychology courses.
An essential resource for understanding the main principles, concepts, and research findings of key learning theories –especially as they relate to education–this proven text blends theory, research, and applications throughout, providing its readers with a coherent and unified perspective on learning in educational settings.
This text’s main objectives are to inform students about the main principles, concepts, and research findings of key theories of learning, especially as they relate to education, and to provide applications of principles and concepts in settings where teaching and learning occur. Although the text places primary emphasis on cognitive theories that stress learners’ constructions of beliefs, skills, strategies, and knowledge, behavioral theories also are discussed.
An introductory chapter introduces learning, discusses key learning issues and ways to assess learning, explains the relation of learning and instruction, and describes some historical antecedents of contemporary learning theories. A second chapter follows which discusses the neuroscience of learning. The next four chapters present theories of learning: behaviorism, social cognitive theory, information processing theory, and constructivism. The last four chapters in the text cover key topics related to learning: cognitive learning processes, motivation, self-regulation, and development.
By blending theory, research, and applications throughout, this text provides instructors and students with a coherent and unified perspective on learning in educational settings.
Features a chapter on the Neuroscience of Learning (Chapter 2) so students can better understand the basics of brain operation and the roles of brain structures in learning.
A chapter on Constructivism (Chapter 6) helps students to understand key constructivist principles, especially those relevant to Vygotsky’s theory, and how to foster constructivist learning environments.
The chapter on Motivation (Chapter 8) explains how motivational processes influence teaching and learning and how educators can develop motivated learners.
A chapter on Development (Chapter 10) teaches about the developmental processes critical for learning and successful ways to foster learning in students at different developmental levels.
The chapter on Cognitive Learning Processes (Chapter 7) aids students’ understanding of the key roles played by metacognition, concept learning, problem-solving, transfer, and technology in teaching and learning.
New to This Edition
NEW! A chapter on Self-Regulation (Chapter 9) helps students understand the processes involved in self-regulation and successful avenues to develop self-regulated learners.
NEW! Instructional Applications are now featured at the end of most chapters to equip students with the knowledge and understanding of how the concepts discussed in each chapter apply to the practice of learning of academic content. See Chapters 2-10.
NEW! Sections on learning from technology and electronic media have been updated and revised to better educate students on how these advancements can be used effectively in instruction to promote learning in students. See examples in Chapters 7 and 10.
NEW! Content-area learning and models of instruction are infused into all chapters covering learning theory and processes to solidify the coherence and connection between teaching and learning in different content areas, learning principles, and processes. See examples in Chapters 2-10.
NEW! Vignettes featured at the introduction of every chapter set the stage for readers for the concepts about to be discussed in the chapters and how the content applies in real situations involving teaching and learning. See Chapters 1-10.
NEW! Over 140 new references added throughout the text introduce the latest theoretical ideas, research findings, and applications in the field. See Chapters 1-10.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 — Introduction to the Study of Learning
Precursors of Modern Learning Theories
Learning theory and philosophy
Beginnings of the psychological study of learning
Structuralism and functionalism
Learning Theory and Research
Functions of theory
Assessment of Learning
Ratings by others
Relation of Learning and Instruction
Integration of theory and practice
Critical Issues for Learning Theories
How does learning occur?
What is the role of memory?
What is the role of motivation?
How does transfer occur?
Which processes are involved in self-regulation?
What are the implications for instruction?
Three Learning Scenarios
Kathy Stone’s third-grade class
Jim Marshall’s U. S. History class
Gina Brown’s educational psychology class
Chapter 2 — Neuroscience of Learning
Organization and Structures
Localization and interconnections
Brain research methods
Neurophysiology of Learning
Information processing system
Phases of development
Motivation and Emotions
Relevance of brain research
Brain-based educational practices
Chapter 3 — Behaviorism
Laws of exercise and effect
Revisions to Thorndike’s theory
Conditioned emotional reactions
Acts and movements
Rewards and punishments
Habit formation and change
Chapter 4 — Social Cognitive Theory
Conceptual Framework for Learning
Enactive and vicarious learning
Learning and performance
Theories of imitation
Functions of modeling
Cognitive skill learning
Motor skill learning
Influences on Learning and Performance
Developmental status of learners
Model prestige and competence
Vicarious consequences to models
Self-efficacy in achievement situations
Models and self-efficacy
Health and therapeutic activities
Tutoring and mentoring
Chapter 5 — Information Processing Theory
Information Processing System
Two-store (dual-memory) model
Alternatives to the two-store model
Theories of attention
Attention and learning
Attention and reading
Two-Store Memory Model
Short-term (working) memory
Influences on encoding
Long-Term Memory: Storage
Storage of knowledge
Production systems and connectionist models
Long-Term Memory: Retrieval and Forgetting
Representation of spatial information
Imagery in LTM
Conditions of learning
Chapter 6 — Constructivism
Constructivism: Assumptions and Perspectives
Contributions and applications
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Implications for instruction
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
Zone of Proximal Development
Private Speech and Socially-Mediated Learning
Verbalization and achievement
Socially mediated learning
Constructivist Learning Environments
APA Learner-Centered Principles
Discussions and debates
Chapter 7 — Cognitive Learning Processes
General and specific skills
Novice-to-expert research methodology
Expert-novice differences in science
Conditional Knowledge and Metacognition
Metacognition and learning
Variables influencing metacognition
Metacognition and behavior
Metacognition and reading
The nature of concepts
Teaching of concepts
Problem solving and learning
Experts and novices
Implications for instruction
Activation of knowledge in memory
Types of transfer
Teaching for transfer
Technology and Instruction
Computer-based learning environments
Chapter 8 — Motivation
Cognitive consistency theory
Model of Motivated Learning
Contemporary model of achievement motivation
Task and ego involvement
Locus of control
Naïve analysis of action
Attribution theory of achievement
Social Cognitive Theory
Goals and expectations
Conceptions of ability
Perceptions of Control
Students with learning problems
Dimensions and development
Self-concept and learning
Overjustification and reward
Achievement motivation training
Attribution change programs
Chapter 9 — Self-Regulation
Social Cognitive Theory
Social cognitive processes
Cyclical nature of self-regulation
Social and self influences
Information Processing Theory
Model of self-regulation
Motivation and Self-Regulation
Chapter 10 — Development
Beginnings of the Scientific Study of Development
The Child Study Movement
Perspectives on Human Development
Issues relevant to learning
Types of developmental theories
Bruner’s Theory of Cognitive Growth
Cognitive growth and knowledge representation
Contemporary Developmental Themes
Developmentally appropriate instruction
Transitions in schooling
Motivation and Development
Case’s instructional model
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About the Author(s)
Dale H. Schunk is Dean of the School of Education and Professor of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. He holds a Ph.D. in Educational Psychology from Stanford University, a M.Ed. from Boston University, and a B.S. from the University of Illinois at Urbana. He has held faculty positions at Purdue University (where he served as Head of the Department of Educational Studies), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (where he also was Chair of the Academic Affairs Institutional Review Board), and the University of Houston.
Dale has edited six books, is co-author of Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, and Applications (Prentice Hall, 2008) and has authored over 80 articles and book chapters. He has served as President of Division 15-Educational Psychology for the American Psychological Association and as Secretary of Division C-Learning and Instruction for the American Educational Research Association. He is presently a member of the editorial boards of three professional journals.
Dale's teaching and research interests include learning, motivation, and self-regulation. He has received the Early Career Contributions Award in Educational Psychology from the American Psychological Association, the Albert J. Harris Research Award from the International Reading Association, and the Outstanding Service Award from the Purdue University School of Education
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