For introductory courses on operating systems.
Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles provides a comprehensive and unified introduction to operating systems topics. Stallings emphasizes both design issues and fundamental principles in contemporary systems and gives readers a solid understanding of the key structures and mechanisms of operating systems. He discusses design trade-offs and the practical decisions affecting design, performance and security. The book illustrates and reinforces design concepts and ties them to real-world design choices through the use of case studies in UNIX and Windows.
Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 6e received the 2009 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA)!
Preface is available for download in PDF format.
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Makes extensive use of a number of tools to boost student understanding critical basic concepts. This includes describing algorithms using plain English and C++ language fragments, the liberal use of illustrations, and an effort to avoid formal proofs.
• Running case studies focused on how specific operating systems implement specific concepts are embedded throughout the text instead of end of book case studies. This enhances the student understanding of relevant concepts at the point of study.
• A copy of all algorithms in an easy-to-read Pascal pseudocode is available on the author’s Web site.
• Several types of projects are supported by the text, including:
— Simulations, which students access via the Web, with no programming or platform involved.
— Small projects, designed to take a week or two to complete.
— Two major programming projects, one to build a shell (or command line interpreter) and one to build a process dispatcher, are included. The text describes the projects, and step-by-step exercises are included at the Instructors Resource Center. The exercises can be uploaded to the instructor’s Web site.
—A more extensive set of seven programming projects provide for more substantial two-person assignments
• Projects are evenly split between system-level projects and kernel-level projects.
• Detailed treatment of threads — one of the most important developments in operating systems — is included. The text helps students to understand the relationship between process and thread and the way in which threads are managed and used.
• A unique comprehensive treatment of scheduling covers key recent developments in scheduling theory and design in the areas of multiprocessor scheduling and real-time scheduling.
• Comprehensive, unified treatment of I/O offers broad and thorough coverage of this critical part of any operating system.
• Companion Website — Access textbook-related resources and support materials for students and instructors maintained by the author.
• Student Resource Site — Access a wealth of computer science-related information including mathematics reviews, how-to documents, research resources, and career explorations maintained by the author.
New to This Edition
In this new edition, the narrative has been clarified and tightened, and illustrations have been improved. Also, a number of new "field-tested" homework problems have been added. Beyond these refinements to improve pedagogy and user friendliness, the technical content of the book has been updated throughout, to reflect the ongoing changes in this exciting field, and the instructor and student support has been expanded. The most noteworthy changes are as follows:
- Windows 7: Windows 7 is Microsoft's latest OS offering for PCs, workstations, and servers. The seventh edition provides details on Windows 7 internals in all of the key technology areas covered in this book, including process/thread management, scheduling, memory management, security, file systems, and I/O.
- Multicore operating system issues: The seventh edition now includes coverage of what has become the most prevalent new development in computer systems: the use of multiple processors on a single chip. At appropriate points in the book, operating system issues related to the use of a multicore organization are explored.
- Virtual machines: Chapter 2 now includes a section on virtual machines, which outlines the various approaches that have been implemented commercially.
- New scheduling examples: Chapter 10 now includes a discussion of the FreeBSD scheduling algorithm, designed for use with multiprocessor and multicore systems, and Linux VServer scheduling for a virtual machine environment.
- Service-oriented architecture (SOA): SOA is a form of client/server architecture that now enjoys widespread use in enterprise systems. SOA is now covered in Chapter 16.
- Probability, statistics, and queuing analysis: Two new chapters review key topics in these areas to provide background for OS performance analysis.
- B-trees: This a technique for organizing indexes into files and databases that is commonly used in OS file systems, including those supported by Mac OS X, Windows, and several Linux file systems. B-trees are now covered in Chapter 12.
- Student study aids: Each chapter now begins with a list of learning objectives. In addition, a chapter-by-chapter set of review outlines highlights key concepts that the student should concentrate on in each chapter.
- OS/161: OS/161 is an educational operating system that is becoming increasingly recognized as the teaching platform of choice. This new edition provides support for using OS/161 as an active learning component. See later in this Preface for details.
- Sample Syllabus: The text contains more material than can be conveniently covered in one semester. Accordingly, instructors are provided with several sample syllabi that guide the use of the text within limited time (e.g., 16 weeks or 12 weeks). These samples are based on real-world experience by professors with the sixth edition.
Table of Contents
About the Author
Chapter 0 Reader's and Instructor's Guide
0.1 Outline of the Book
0.2 A Roadmap for Readers and Instructors
0.3 Internet and Web Resources
PART ONE: BACKGROUND
Chapter 1: Computer System Overview
1.1 Basic Elements
1.2 Evolution of the Microprocessor
1.3 Instruction Execution
1.5 The Memory Hierarchy
1.6 Cache Memory
1.7 Direct Memory Access
1.8 Multiprocessor and Multicore Organization
1.9 Recommended Reading and Web Sites
1.10 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Appendix 1A Performance Characteristics of Two-Level Memory
Appendix 1B Procedure Control
Chapter 2: Operating System Overview
2.1 Operating System Objectives and Functions
2.2 The Evolution of Operating Systems
2.3 Major Achievements
2.4 Developments Leading to Modern Operating Systems
2.5 Virtual Machines
2.6 OS Design Considerations for Multiprocessor and Multicore
2.7 Microsoft Windows Overview
2.8 Traditional UNIX Systems
2.9 Modern UNIX Systems
2.11 Recommended Reading and Web Sites
2.12 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
PART TWO: PROCESSES
Chapter 3: Process Description and Control
3.1 What is a Process?
3.2 Process States
3.3 Process Description
3.4 Process Control
3.5 Execution of the Operating System
3.6 Security Issues
3.7 UNIX SVR4 Process Management
3.9 Recommended Reading
3.10 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Chapter 4: Threads
4.1 Processes and Threads
4.2 Types of Threads
4.3 Multicore and Multithreading
4.4 Windows 7 Thread and SMP Management
4.5 Solaris Thread and SMP Management
4.6 Linux Process and Thread Management
4.7 Mac OS X Grand Central Dispatch
4.9 Recommended Reading
4.10 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Chapter 5: Concurrency: Mutual Exclusion and Synchronization
5.1 Principles of Concurrency
5.2 Mutual Exclusion: Hardware Support
5.5 Message Passing
5.6 Readers/Writers Problem
5.8 Recommended Reading
5.9 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Chapter 6: Concurrency: Deadlock and Starvation
6.1 Principles of Deadlock
6.2 Deadlock Prevention
6.3 Deadlock Avoidance
6.4 Deadlock Detection
6.5 An Integrated Deadlock Strategy
6.6 Dining Philosophers Problem
6.7 UNIX Concurrency Mechanisms
6.8 Linux Kernel Concurrency Mechanisms
6.9 Solaris Thread Synchronization Primitives
6.10 Windows 7 Concurrency Mechanisms
6.12 Recommended Reading
6.13 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
PART THREE: MEMORY
Chapter 7: Memory Management
7.1 Memory Management Requirements
7.2 Memory Partitioning
7.5 Security Issues
7.7 Recommended Reading
7.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Appendix 7A Loading and Linking
Chapter 8: Virtual Memory
8.1 Hardware and Control Structures
8.2 Operating System Software
8.3 UNIX and Solaris Memory Management
8.4 Linux Memory Management
8.5 Windows 7 Memory Management
8.7 Recommended Reading and Web Sites
8.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
PART FOUR: SCHEDULING
Chapter 9: Uniprocessor Scheduling
9.1 Types of Scheduling
9.2 Scheduling Algorithms
9.3 Traditional UNIX Scheduling
9.5 Recommended Reading
9.6 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Appendix 9A Response Time
Appendix 9B Queuing Systems
Chapter 10: Multiprocessor and Real-Time Scheduling
10.1 Multiprocessor Scheduling
10.2 Real-Time Scheduling
10.3 Linux Scheduling
10.4 UNIX FreeBSD Scheduling
10.5 Windows 7 Scheduling
10.7 Recommended Reading
10.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
PART FIVE: INPUT/OUTPUT AND FILES
Chapter 11: I/O Management and Disk Scheduling
11.1 I/O Devices
11.2 Organization of the I/O Function
11.3 Operating System Design Issues
11.4 I/O Buffering
11.5 Disk Scheduling
11.7 Disk Cache
11.8 UNIX FreeBSD I/O
11.9 Linux I/O
11.10 Windows 7 I/O
11.12 Recommended Reading
11.13 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Appendix 11A Disk Storage Devices
Chapter 12: File Management
12.2 File Organization and Access
12.3 File Directories
12.4 File Sharing
12.5 Record Blocking
12.6 Secondary Storage Management
12.7 File System Security
12.8 UNIX File Management
12.9 Linux File Management
12.10 Windows 7 File System
12.12 Recommended Reading
12.13 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
PART SIX: EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
Chapter 13: Embedded Operating Systems
13.1 Embedded Systems
13.2 Characteristics of Embedded Operating Systems
13.5 Recommended Reading and Web Sites
13.6 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
PART SEVEN: SECURITY
Chapter 14: Computer Security Threats
14.1 Computer Security Concepts
14.2 Threats, Attacks, and Assets
14.4 Malicious Software Overview
14.5 Viruses, Worms, and Bots
14.8 Recommended Reading
14.9 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Chapter 15: Computer Security Techniques
15.2 Access Control
15.3 Intrusion Detection
15.4 Malware Defense
15.5 Dealing with Buffer Overflow Attacks
15.6 Windows 7 Security
15.8 Recommended Reading
15.9 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
PART EIGHT: DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
Chapter 16: Distributed Processing, Client/Server, and Clusters
16.1 Client/Server Computing
16.2 Distributed Message Passing
16.3 Remote Procedure Calls
16.5 Windows 7 Cluster Server
16.6 Sun Cluster
16.7 Beowulf and Linux Clusters
16.9 Recommended Reading
16.10 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Appendix A: Topics in Concurrency
A.1 Mutual Exclusion: Software Approaches
A.2 Race Conditions and Semaphores
A.3 A Barbershop Problem
Appendix B: Programming and Operating System Projects
B.1 Animations and Animation Projects
B.3 Programming Projects
B.4 Research Projects
B.5 Reading/Report Assignments
B.6 Writing Assignments
B.7 Documentation Projects
B.8 BACI and Nachos
ONLINE CHAPTERS AND APPENDICES
Chapter 17: Networking
17.1 The Need for a Protocol Architecture
17.2 The TCP/IP Protocol Architecture
17.4 Linux Networking
17.6 Recommended Reading and Web Sites
17.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Appendix 17A The Trivial File Transfer Protocol
Chapter 18: Distributed Process Management
18.1 Process Migration
18.2 Distributed Global States
18.3 Distributed Mutual Exclusion
18.4 Distributed Deadlock
18.6 Recommended Reading
18.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Chapter 19: Overview of Probability and Stochastic Processes
19.2 Random Variables
19.3 Elementary Concepts of Stochastic Processes
19.4 Recommended Reading and Web Sites
19.5 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Chapter 20: Queuing Analysis
20.1 How Queues Behave–A Simple Example
20.2 Why Queuing Analysis?
20.3 Queuing Models
20.4 Single-Server Queues
20.5 Multiserver Queues
20.7 Queues with Priorities
20.8 Networks of Queues
20.9 Other Queuing Models
20.10 Estimating Model Parameters
20.11 Recommended Reading and Web Sites
20.12 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Programming Project One: Developing a Shell
Programming Project Two: The HOST Dispatcher Shell
Appendix C: Topics in Computer Organization
C.1 Processor Registers
C.2 Instruction Execution
C.3 I/O Communication Techniques
C.4 Hardware Performance Issues and Multicore Organization
Appendix D: Object-Oriented Design
D.2 Object-Oriented Concepts
D.3 Benefits of Object-Oriented Design
D.5 Recommended Reading and Web Sites
Appendix E: Amdahl's Law
Appendix F: Hash Tables
Appendix G: Response Time
Appendix H: Queuing System Concepts
H.1 The Single-Server Queue
H.2 The Multiserver Queue
H.3 Poisson Arrival Rate
Appendix I: The Complexity of Algorithms
Appendix J: Standards Organizations
J.1 The Importance of Standards
J.2 Standards and Regulation
J.3 Standards-Setting Organizations
Appendix K: Cryptographic Algorithms
K.1 Symmetric Encryption
K.2 Public-Key Cryptography
K.3 Secure Hash Functions
Appendix L: The International Reference Alphabet
Appendix M: BACI: The Ben-Ari Concurrent Programming System
M.3 Examples of BACI Programs
M.4 BACI Projects
M.5 Enhancements to the BACK System
Appendix N: Sockets: A Programmer's Introduction
N.1 Versions of Sockets
N.2 Sockets, Socket Descriptors, Ports, and Connections
N.3 The Client/Server Model of Communication
N.4 Sockets Elements
N.5 Stream and Datagram Sockets
N.6 Run-Time Program Control
N.7 Remote Execution of a Windows Console Application
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About the Author(s)
William Stallings has made a unique contribution to understanding the broad sweep of technical developments in computer networking and computer architecture. He has authored 17 titles, and counting revised editions, a total of 41 books on various aspects of these subjects. In over 20 years in the field, he has been a technical contributor, technical manager, and an executive with several high-technology firms. Currently he is an independent consultant whose clients have included computer and networking manufacturers and customers, software development firms, and leading-edge government research institutions.
He has received the award for the best Computer Science textbook of the year ¿seven times from the Text and Academic Authors Association.
Bill has designed and implemented both TCP/IP-based and OSI-based protocol suites on a variety of computers and operating systems, ranging from microcomputers to mainframes. As a consultant, he has advised government agencies, computer and software vendors, and major users on the design, selection, and use of networking software and products.
As evidence of his commitment to providing a broad range of support to students, Bill created and maintains the Computer Science Student Resource Site at WilliamStallings.com/StudentSupport.html. This site provides documents and links on a variety of subjects of general interest to computer science students (and professionals).
He is a member of the editorial board of Cryptologia, a scholarly journal devoted to all aspects of cryptology. He is a frequent lecturer and author of numerous technical papers. His books include Data and Computer Communications, Ninth Edition (Prentice Hall, 2011), which has become the standard in the field.
Dr. Stallings holds a PhD from M.I.T. in Computer Science and a B.S. from Notre Dame in electrical engineering.
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