## Table of Contents

**Chapter 0 Mathematics Review**

0.1 Exponents

0.2 Scientific Notation and Powers of 10

0.3 Algebra

0.4 Direct, Inverse, and Inverse-Square Relationships

0.5 Logarithmic and Exponential Functions

0.6 Areas and Volumes

0.7 Plane Geometry and Trigonometry

** **

**Chapter 1 Models, Measurements, and Vectors**

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Idealized Models

1.3 Standards and Units

1.4 Unit Consistency and Conversions

1.5 Precision and Significant Figures

1.6 Estimates and Orders of Magnitude

1.7 Vectors and Vector Addition

1.8 Components of Vectors

** **

**Chapter 2 Motion along a Straight Line**

2.1 Displacement and Average Velocity

2.2 Instantaneous Velocity

2.3 Average and Instantaneous Acceleration

2.4 Motion with Constant Acceleration

2.5 Proportional Reasoning

2.6 Freely Falling Objects

2.7 Relative Velocity along a Straight Line

** **

**Chapter 3 Motion in a Plane**

3.1 Velocity in a Plane

3.2 Acceleration in a Plane

3.3 Projectile Motion

3.4 Uniform Circular Motion

3.5 Relative Velocity in a Plane

** **

**Chapter 4 Newton’s Laws of Motion**

4.1 Force

4.2 Newton’s First Law

4.3 Mass and Newton’s Second Law

4.4 Mass and Weight

4.5 Newton’s Third Law

4.6 Free-Body Diagrams

** **

**Chapter 5 Applications of Newton’s Laws**

5.1 Equilibrium of a Particle

5.2 Applications of Newton’s Second Law

5.3 Contact Forces and Friction

5.4 Elastic Forces

5.5 Forces in Nature

**Chapter 6 Circular Motion and Gravitation**

6.1 Force in Circular Motion

6.2 Motion in a Vertical Circle

6.3 Newton’s Law of Gravitation

6.4 Weight

6.5 Satellite Motion

**Chapter 7 Work and Energy**

7.1 An Overview of Energy

7.2 Work

7.3 Work and Kinetic Energy

7.4 Work Done by a Varying Force

7.5 Potential Energy

7.6 Conservation of Energy

7.7 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces

7.8 Power

** **

**Chapter 8 Momentum**

8.1 Momentum

8.2 Conservation of Momentum

8.3 Inelastic Collisions

8.4 Elastic Collisions

8.5 Impulse

8.6 Center of Mass

8.7 Motion of the Center of Mass

8.8 Rocket Propulsion

**Chapter 9 Rotational Motion**

9.1 Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration

9.2 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration

9.3 Relationship between Linear and Angular Quantities

9.4 Kinetic Energy of Rotation and Moment of Inertia

9.5 Rotation about a Moving Axis

**Chapter 10 Dynamics of Rotational Motion**

10.1 Torque

10.2 Torque and Angular Acceleration

10.3 Work and Power in Rotational Motion

10.4 Angular Momentum

10.5 Conservation of Angular Momentum

10.6 Equilibrium of a Rigid Body

10.7 Vector Nature of Angular Quantities

** **

**Chapter 11 Elasticity and Periodic Motion**

11.1 Stress, Strain, and Elastic Deformations

11.2 Periodic Motion

11.3 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion

11.4 Equations of Simple Harmonic Motion

11.5 The Simple Pendulum

11.6 Damped and Forced Oscillations

**Chapter 12 Mechanical Waves and Sound **

12.1 Mechanical Waves

12.2 Periodic Mechanical Waves

12.3 Wave Speeds

12.4 Mathematical Description of a Wave

12.5 Reflections and Superposition

12.6 Standing Waves and Normal Modes

12.7 Longitudinal Standing Waves

12.8 Interference

12.9 Sound and Hearing

12.10 Sound Intensity

12.11 Beats

12.12 The Doppler Effect

12.13 Applications of Acoustics

12.14 Musical Tones

**Chapter 13 Fluid Mechanics**

13.1 Density

13.2 Pressure in a Fluid

13.3 Archimedes’s Principle: Buoyancy

13.4 Surface Tension and Capillarity

13.5 Fluid Flow

13.6 Bernoulli’s Equation

13.7 Applications of Bernoulli’s equation

13.8 Real Fluids: Viscosity and Turbulence

**Chapter 14 Temperature and Heat**

14.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium

14.2 Temperature Scales

14.3 Thermal Expansion

14.4 Quantity of Heat

14.5 Phase Changes

14.6 Calorimetry

14.7 Heat Transfer

14.8 Solar Energy and Resource Conservation

**Chapter 15 Thermal Properties of Matter**

15.1 The Mole and Avogadro’s Number

15.2 Equations of State

15.3 Kinetic Theory of an Ideal Gas

15.4 Heat Capacities

15.5 The First Law of Thermodynamics

15.6 Thermodynamic Processes

15.7 Properties of an Ideal Gas

**Chapter 16 The Second Law of Thermodynamics**

16.1 Directions of Thermodynamic Processes

16.2 Heat Engines

16.3 Internal Combustion Engines

16.4 Refrigerators

16.5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics

16.6 The Carnot Engine: The Most Efficient Heat Engine

16.7 Entropy

16.8 The Kelvin Temperature Scale

16.9 Energy Resources: A Case Study in Thermodynamics

**Chapter 17 Electric Charge and Electric Field**

17.1 Electric charge

17.2 Conductors and Insulators

17.3 Conservation and Quantization of Charge

17.4 Coulomb’s Law

17.5 Electric Field and Electric Forces

17.6 Calculating Electric Fields

17.7 Electric Field Lines

17.8 Gauss’s Law and Field Calculations

17.9 Charges on Conductors

**Chapter 18 Electric** **Potential and Capacitance**

18.1 Electric Potential Energy

18.2 Potential

18.3 Equipotential Surfaces

18.4 The Millikan Oil-Drop Experiment

18.5 Capacitors

18.6 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel

18.7 Electric Field Energy

18.8 Dielectrics

18.9 Molecular Model of Induced Charge

**Chapter** **19 Current, Resistance, and Direct-Current Circuits**

19.1 Current

19.2 Resistance and Ohm's Law

19.3 Electromotive Force and Circuits

19.4 Energy and Power in Electric Circuits

19.5 Resistors in Series and Parallel

19.6 Kirchhoff's Rules

19.7 Electrical Measuring Instruments

19.8 Resistance-Capacitance Circuits

19.9 Physiological Effects of Currents

19.10 Power Distribution Systems

**Chapter 20 Magnetic Field and Magnetic Forces **

20.1 Magnetism

20.2 Magnetic Field and Magnetic Force

20.3 Motion of Charged Particles in a Magnetic Field

20.4 Mass Spectrometers

20.5 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor

20.6 Force and Torque on a Current Loop

20.7 Magnetic Field of a Long, Straight Conductor

20.8 Force between Parallel Conductors

20.9 Current Loops and Solenoids

20.10 Magnetic Field Calculations

20.11 Magnetic Materials

**Chapter 21 Electromagnetic Induction **

21.1 Induction Experiments

21.2 Magnetic Flux

21.3 Faraday’s Law

21.4 Lenz’s Law

21.5 Motional Electromotive Force

21.6 Eddy Currents

21.7 Mutual Inductance

21.8 Self-Inductance

21.9 Transformers

21.10 Magnetic Field Energy

21.11 The R—L Circuit

21.12 The L—C Circuit

**Chapter 22 Alternating Current **

22.1 Phasors and Alternating Currents

22.2 Resistance and Reactance

22.3 The Series R—L—C Circuit

22.4 Power in Alternating-Current Circuits

22.5 Series Resonance

22.6 Parallel Resonance

**Chapter 23 Electromagnetic Waves **

23.1 Introduction to Electromagnetic Waves

23.2 Speed of an Electromagnetic Wave

23.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

23.4 Sinusoidal Waves

23.5 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves

23.6 Nature of Light

23.7 Reflection and Refraction

23.8 Total Internal Reflection

23.9 Dispersion

23.10 Polarization

23.11 Huygens’s Principle

23.12 Scattering of Light

**Chapter 24 Geometric Optics **

24.1 Reflection at a Plane Surface

24.2 Reflection at a Spherical Surface

24.3 Graphical Methods for Mirrors

24.4 Refraction at a Spherical Surface

24.5 Thin Lenses

24.6 Graphical Methods for Lenses

**Chapter 25 Optical Instruments **

25.1 The Camera

25.2 The Projector

25.3 The Eye

25.4 The Magnifier

25.5 The Microscope

25.6 Telescopes

25.7 Lens Aberrations

**Chapter 26 Interference and Diffraction **

26.1 Interference and Coherent Sources

26.2 Two-Source Interference of Light

26.3 Interference in Thin Films

26.4 Diffraction

26.5 Diffraction from a Single Slit

26.6 Multiple Slits and Diffraction Gratings

26.7 X-Ray Diffraction

26.8 Circular Apertures and Resolving Power

26.9 Holography

**Chapter 27 Relativity **

27.1 Invariance of Physical Laws

27.2 Relative Nature of Simultaneity

27.3 Relativity of Time

27.4 Relativity of Length

27.5 The Lorentz Transformation

27.6 Relativistic Momentum

27.7 Relativistic Work and Energy

27.8 Relativity and Newtonian Mechanics

**Chapter 28 Photons, Electrons, and Atoms **

28.1 The Photoelectric Effect

28.2 Line Spectra and Energy Levels

28.3 The Nuclear Atom and the Bohr Model

28.4 The Laser

28.5 X-Ray Production and Scattering

28.6 The Wave Nature of Particles

28.7 Wave—Particle Duality

28.8 The Electron Microscope

**Chapter 29 Atoms, Molecules, and Solids **

29.1 Electrons in Atoms

29.2 Atomic Structure

29.3 Diatomic Molecules

29.4 Structure and Properties of Solids

29.5 Energy Bands

29.6 Semiconductors

29.7 Semiconductor Devices

29.8 Superconductivity

**Chapter 30 Nuclear and High-Energy Physics **

30.1 Properties of Nuclei

30.2 Nuclear Stability

30.3 Radioactivity

30.4 Radiation and the Life Sciences

30.5 Nuclear Reactions

30.6 Nuclear Fission

30.7 Nuclear Fusion

30.8 Fundamental Particles

30.9 High-Energy Physics

30.10 Cosmology