10. Anerobic Respiration
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Hi in this video we're gonna be talking about like Alexis. So in this first section we are going to focus just on an overview of the palaces, what enzymes are involved in what actually analysis is. Then later we're gonna get into the really more complex steps of analysis. So like analysis is actually a pathway responsible for breaking down sugar. Um So it occurs in the side of salt the cell and actually it does not require oxygen. And so if you're interested in what the formula looks like, this is gonna be it here. So you have glucose plus uh in A. D. Plus plus ADP and phosphate eventually turns into peru bait and A D. H. And 80 P. Through psychologists. So the net result from a single glucose molecule with glycol is this is gonna be to a TP to energy H. And two pyro baits. So um that's gonna be really important to know definitely this right here you will most likely get a question on the test or quiz or somewhere. What are the end results of psychosis? Well this is it from one glucose molecule, you get to a T. P, two N. I. G. H. And two pirate baits. So definitely know that now in the process of glycol Asus there are four main enzymes that runs like a colossus and I just want to define you know what exactly these enzymes do. And then I'm gonna show you an example of what that actually looks like chemically. Um So that you get an idea of the enzymes of different chemical reactions that are happening in psychosis. So the first is a. D. Hydra genesis and that is responsible for oxidizing molecules by removing a proton and an electron a kindness is gonna add a phosphate onto a molecule. And I saw mores rearranges bonds within the molecule and then um you taste shifts chemical groups from one position to another. So that's easy enough to remember if you are really good at memorizing my words. But let's actually look at that through these um images and all of these enzymes are really regulated by levels of A T. P. So if there's not there's too much a teepee. So an abundance of a teepee, glucose is the rate of it is going to decrease because the cell doesn't need to be created more 80 because it has a lot of it. So these enzymes are regulated by the amount of 80. So first we have a dehydrator, whoa, di hydrogen. And so this is gonna be your starting material here. And what you see is it removes this hydrogen. So now you have this new group here. Then you have a kindness which adds a phosphate. So you can see this moving from an O. H. To an O. P. Then you have an eye some race and that's going to be responsible for moving molecules around. So you have this group here. But it can change into this group here because it moves those molecules and those bonds to a different location and then you have a mute taste which is just responsible for you know switching molecules around. So in this molecule you have this group with a P. On the end and this group of an H. And then when um you taste comes in that can change the position of the P. And the H. So these are four very common enzymes um that happen in black analysis and that we're gonna be mentioning and again and again. So I just want to just make sure you know you know what these enzymes are, what they do before we get into the nitty gritty of like analysis so that let's now turn the page.
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So now we're going to go through the exact steps of like Alexis. So if you just flip through this handout, you'll see that there's a lot and it's a lot of pages. But bear with me because I organized this in a way that's really simple and you're not gonna need to know everything on every one of these pages. Um So glad colossus has 10 steps. Um and so we're gonna go through each of those steps and I'm gonna tell you what you need to know about the steps and what you don't. So the first step um I have sort of summarized, you know what this step is about. So this step the very first step is about phosphor relation. So what happens is glucose molecule remember we're starting with the sugar, starting usually with glucose is going to be phosphor elated by A T. P. And so what you need to know about this stuff is that the first steps possible relation. And that glucose is possible related by http. Um This chemical reaction here, you're not gonna need to know the reason I added these is because you know, it's sometimes it's so easy just to write down glucose is possible related by a teepee, right? But when you get through 10 steps that can kind of be hard to remember. So I've added these images, it's just so we can actually see what it looks like. So here we have glucose and we have our A. T. P. Come in and after A T. P. Is done, it actually adds this for entire phosphate group onto glucose and that becomes what's known as glucose six phosphate. And the purpose of this is to actually trapped glucose in the cell because the phosphate, it can't leave. But if it doesn't have the phosphate, it actually can leave and then the cell won't ever be able to break it down. So the first step is trapping glucose, thereby false, correlating it with a T. P. Now, the second step, what happens is oxygen is moved around so there is an oxygen on a carbonnel group and it moves from carbon 12 carbon to And so this change is a key toast to an Aldo's sugar. Now, if you're trying to think, oh my gosh, do I need to know all of this for all 10 steps? No, you don't. The first step, you really need to know that's a really important step. This one is not so much. No one is probably going to ever ask you about step two, like a'Lexus. Unless they're asking you to write down all 10 steps. Um so I just wanted to put it here and what it does is the carbon oxygen actually moves and when it moves it can change the sort of orientation. And this molecule from a glucose six phosphate to a fructose, six phosphate. Don't need to know these chemical names. Just know that, you know, this is what's happening now. The third step is really important and the reason it's really important because it has this enzyme that is gonna be really crucial in other steps. So this is a second phosphor relation steps. So first step phosphor relation. Third step, cross correlation. What happens is that there's a hydroxyl group which if you remember hydraulic, so it's gonna be O. H. On carbon one is phosphor related by A T. P. So the exact same way that the step one was done. So you have this fructose, six phosphate, you're a T. P. Comes in and now you have this extra from state groups and you have two phosphate groups. The first one that was added. And now the second one that was added. And this is catalyzed by the enzyme known as phosphate free tokens. Kind of a long name. But it's really important enzyme in glycol icis it's really important and we're going to talk about it more in the future. So just kind of remember phosphor tokens and if you're reviewing this, just you know, step three is where is used. Now. The fourth step is gonna be a cleavage step. So the molecule is cleaved somewhere. And this is a really really, really important step. Let me back out. So you can see it more. So what happens is we still have a six carbon sugar and you can see this here, there's this ring sugar with six carbons on it. 12345 and six. Um But the cleavage is actually going to turn that into 23 carbon molecules. So what you get is this molecule here called G three P. Which is really really really really really important and just like circle it, this is this is the word you want to know. And then it forms this all second molecule called D. H. A. P. And that's not necessarily as important and I'll tell you about that in the next step. But they're each have three commons 123456. So now we have these 23 carbon molecules. So this is a very important step. So remember I said step one, is that three were important? Because of the phosphor relation. Step four is really important. You're gonna want to know that now. Step five is gonna be the explanation of why this molecule, this D. H. A. P molecule wasn't that important. And that's because in this step there's a second G three P creation. So you actually want to end up with two G three P molecules. So you have the first one from here and then you end up with the second one here because this molecule is eventually turned into G three P in step five. And so each glucose molecule now. So so now we started off with glucose and by step five you've created three G three piece and these are gonna be three carbon And this is six carbon. So I hope you're following with me so far. I know it's complicated. Um But this is a name, you want to know. You don't necessarily need to know all the other intermediates, but this one you're gonna want to know. So now from here on out we are going to every step is going to happen twice because it's happening to this G. three p. And this one too. So before we were just talking about what was happening to a single molecule. But from step six on, we're talking about what's happening to two G three P molecules. So in step six, what you get is that the N. A. D. H. Is created. So how this happens is the G three P molecules are oxidized to create N. A. D. H. So you have your G. Three P. There is an oxidation step here which results in the formation of N. A. D. H. So this is really our first step that's actually creating energy instead of using it. So you remember all those false relation steps that we're using ADP to false correlated so is using energy. But this actually um as the first step that's creating um or using that energy. And so this results in this the formation of this chemical, you don't need to really know the name. But remember this is happening twice. So both. So you actually get two of these and you get to N. A. D. H. S. Important. So now we're moving to step seven and that's going to be a teepee creation. So finally we're now making more energy. And so the phosphate group is transferred to ADP to form A T. P. And this is actually a specialized type of foss relation. And it's called substrate level foster relations. And that is when a DP is created from the transfer of a phosphate group from a molecule or a substrate to a T. P. So in this remember it's happening twice because we have the two G three PS we started with so now we have two of these and because they the phosphate group is been transferred to a TB, which forms A T. P. It reforms to a Tps because it has happening twice. And then it forms this molecule here. So now we've had to N A. D. H. Created. We have to A T. P. Created but we've also used to a T. P A T. P. In the first couple of steps. So H is a false state has moved not necessarily an important step. Um It's moved from carbon 32 carbon too. So you can see this um It's here and now it's here for this molecule. Not that super important of a step. Then we have nine which is water remove removal. So we start out with this molecule here, a water is removed and end up with this molecule here. Um Not that super important of a step. And then finally 10, which is gonna be a really important step. And this is gonna be a teepee creation. And so this happens the same way a phosphate is transferred from the molecule to A T A. D. P. Which forms A T. P. So you have this molecule here, you have this phosphate here. It's transferred to ADP forms A T. P. And it happens twice. So remember to A T. P. So this forms the end product of Piru. Piru is really important. And we're gonna talk about what happens to Piru in other videos but like analysis. So let's just review the overview of like analysis. What we get is we start off here with glucose and we put into a Tps because those are responsible for the false correlation that happens at the beginning. And then throughout this eventually gets turned into two molecules. So G. Three P and G three P. And each one of these G three P creates an A N. A. D. H. And to A T. P. S and eventually ends up with a priority. So the net result remember I said you know you need to memorize this for your for your quiz or your test. The net result of Black A'Lexus is gonna be to a T P. A T. P, two N A D. H. And two Pirate Bay. So if we were to take a second here and I'm just gonna ask maybe a quiz question, why is it not for a T. P. Right because we have four here. So why is it not for what is the net result Not for? Right. The answer to that question is because we used to a T. P. Here and so four minus the two we started with equals to a T. P. Which is the net result. So I hope that's clear. I know it's a really long video but hopefully I clearly stepped out or explain exactly which steps are most important, exactly what you need to know and feel for you to review this video as many times as you need um to really grasp these concepts so that let's now turn the page.
Which of the following is not a result of glycolysis?
Phosphofructokinase is an enzyme that is able to do what?
Phosphorylate a molecule using a phosphate from ATP
Breakdown ATP to provide energy to continue glycolysis
What happens during substrate level phosphorylation?
ATP is broken down when it donates a phosphate to a molecule
A phosphate is removed and used to synthesize ATP
A G3P molecule is phosphorylated
NADH is created