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Cell Biology

Learn the toughest concepts covered in Cell Biology with step-by-step video tutorials and practice problems by world-class tutors

22. Techniques in Cell Biology

Tracking Protein Movement


Tracking Proteins

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Hi in this video, I'm gonna be talking to you about tracking protein movement. So you can imagine that if a scientist is studying a protein, it's gonna be super important to identify where its location is in a cell. So there's a few different ways you can do this. I'm not gonna mention all of them. Just gonna mention and highlight a couple important ones. First thing I want to talk about is in situ hybridization and this will identify where an R. N. A. Or D. N. A. Is in a cell. So what you do is you take sales, you fix them to a microscope slide and then you incubate with complementary probes that have some type of fluorescence on them. So then is that wherever that DNA or RNA is that probes going to bind it because it's complementary and then it's going to have Florence fluorescent attached to it. And so then you can just visualize and say where's the fluorescent and that's going to answer, where is that nuclear type? So it's an important one. Second one is use of reporter genes. So reporter genes are genes that can be fused to other genes. So that then when you create a protein, you now have your reporter protein and your gene of interest. And this allows you to look at a protein's location or movement in a cell. So really important reporter gene is green fluorescent protein or GFP E so G F P has a green fluorescence like its name suggests. So if you fuse G F. P. Two a protein now you have your protein and GFP E then G F P is going to be attached that protein and it's going to be glowing green. So anywhere that protein is, you're going to have a glowing green signal. And that allows you to see where is my protein. But also you can use antibodies. So antibodies target specific antigens, but you can make antibodies against specific proteins or specific molecules or specific organelles and then have them also be labeled with fluorescent so that wherever that protein is in a cell, then that antibody will bind it and glow or give out fluorescence. And then you can see where it is. So this is an example of antibodies. So we have three antibodies here, green, red and blue. They're all detecting different things. And you can see where these proteins are located in the cell, based on where the color is present in the cell. So with that let's now move on.