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Cell Biology

Learn the toughest concepts covered in Cell Biology with step-by-step video tutorials and practice problems by world-class tutors

18. Cell Junctions and Tissues

Extracellular Matrix of Animal Cells



Extracellular Matrix

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Hi in this video we're gonna be talking about the extra cellular matrix. So the extra cellular matrix pretty much it's everything outside of the cell. So you have a group of cells or a single cell even or tissue. And all the stuff that's like sitting next to the cells but aren't actually part of the cell are is the extra cellular matrix. So why why do we have this? And what is it made up of? Well we have it because it provides support to those cells. So we have a bundle of cells. Why would they stick together? Like like they some sales have like individual proteins that can attach to others. But for the most part you need something else to collect a group of cells and stick them together. So that's the role of the exercise or matrix. And so to do that it's made up of a lot of different fibers and proteins which connect things together and provide support and structure to a group of cells that would otherwise just like sort of casually associate with each other. These provide those connections and that strength. So what are some of the fibers in the exercise of the matrix? Well some of the fibers a big one is collagen fiber rolls which are made up of but not about collagen fibers. And so collagen fibers are made up of are they form connective tissues which you may which we've talked about which you have talked about in other biology classes. If you ever take anatomy this will be really important but they're made up of collagen which forms these things. Um there's a certain cell type that produces collagen. Those cell types are called fiberglass. They produce collagen and collagen is formed together form these fiber bowls, connect the cells together and form these like big strong tissues. Another one is elastin and this protein is provides elasticity which makes it easy to remember. So it's a flexible fiber and that flexibility um provides elasticity which is really important. So some things in our body for instance that need elasticity are like our skin. Our skin cells need elasticity because every time we pinch our skin we don't want our skin just like flaking off and breaking. So that elastin is really important um as part of the exercise and make drinks for some tissues and organs. Another one is fiber nectarines. These are glycoprotein. Remember water glycoprotein? They're gonna have sugar and proteins, their proteins attached to sugar. So if the fiber nectarines are glycoprotein, so their sugar proteins and they allow um they actually connect the college into the cells. So we have collagen fibers, they're just kind of floating around out there. We have cells that are kind of floating around out there. These fiber connections come in and say hey we're all going to associate, you come here, you come here let's attach together and then another one you need to know about our gags and these are sugars as well carbohydrates um and they bind things together as well. The whole exercise of the matrix is responsible for binding things together. So these do that as well. Um One particular gag that your book may mention is Hyler on and it just fills up space essentially and provides a consistency to the extra cellular matrix. So I know a lot of vocab words but essentially the exercise of the matrix is made up of a bunch of different fibers that connect cells together and provide support. So here we have an example of what this would look like the extra cellular matrix. We have um some matrix sees down here this connective tissue here where we have cells sitting in it. We have this matrix sort of floating through out here. You can see there's fibers there sells everything is connecting these cells together. So it'll be the exercise matrix. Um Another really really really important protein that you should know about are these things called integrations um integrates our trans membrane proteins. Which what does that mean? It means it travels through the membrane and um so they're in cells. So they're not just like floating outside of cells there in cells and they attach the extra cellular matrix to the side of skeleton of the cell. So this connects those cells to the exercise. Regular matrix integrations are made up of two alpha and two beta subunits and there they have active and inactive confirmations which I'm gonna show you down here. So we have an active instagram and you can see that it's up. So this is a cell, this is a membrane and we have our integration here this trans membrane protein. It's active, it's interacting with the exercise the matrix here connecting that sell to the exercise of the matrix and inactive is sort of bent over. It's not really binding to anything or connecting with anything. So that's the inactive version. And so um when cells grow so it's not just that the intracellular matrix and the cells are just like connected together. Sometimes cells need to grow, our cells need to move and so in the process of Anchorage dependent growth, what happens is the cells need to grow right Anchorage dependent. And so the cells anchor themselves to something through these integrations. And so in order to grow so if they want to grow a tissue the cells are all going to grow to anchor themselves together with these integrations and then they're going to grow. And so that the whole tissue can grow together. So that's an example of instagram control growth and they also control signaling. So integrations are really important protein connecting the extra cellular matrix and um making sure that the cells and the extra cellular matrix are communicating, sticking together and responding to each other for things like growth proliferation and survival. So with that let's move on

Which of the following proteins are not found in the ECM


Which of the following ECM proteins connect collagen to the ECM?