## Table of Contents

**1 Fundamental Concepts**

1-1. Introduction

1-2. Characteristics of Matter

1-3. The International System of Units

1-4. Calculations

1-5. Problem Solving

1-6. Basic Fluid Properties

1-7. Viscosity

1-8. Viscosity Measurement

1-9. Vapor Pressure

1-10. Surface Tension and Capillarity

**2 Fluid Statics**

2-1. Pressure

2-2. Absolute and Gage Pressure

2-3. Static Pressure Variation

2-4. Pressure Variation for Incompressible

2-5. Pressure Variation for Compressible Fluids

2-6. Measurement of Static Pressure

2-7. Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces

2-8. Hydrostatic Forces on an Incline Plane or Curved Surface Determined by Projection

2-9. Buoyancy

2-10. Stability

2-11. Constant Accelerated Translation of a Liquid

2-12. Steady Rotation of a Liquid

**3 Kinematics of Fluid Motion**

3-1. Types of Flow Description

3-2. Types of Fluid Flow

3-3. Graphical Descriptions of Fluid Flow

3-4. Fluid Acceleration

3-5. Streamline Coordinates

3-6. The Reynolds Transport Theorem

**4 Conservation of Mass**

4-1. Rate of Flow and Average Velocity

4-2. Continuity Equation

**5 Energy of Moving Fluids**

5-1. Euler’s Equations of Motion

5-2. The Bernoulli Equation

5-3. Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation

5-4. Energy and the Hydraulic Gradient

5-5. The Energy Equation

**6 Fluid Momentum**

6-1. The Linear Momentum Equation

6-2. The Angular Momentum Equation

6-3. Propellers

6-4. Applications for Control Volumes Having Rectilinear Accelerated Motion

6-5. Turbojets

6-6. Rockets

**7 Differential Fluid Flow**

7-1. Differential Analysis

7-2. Kinematics of Differential Fluid Elements

7-3. Circulation and Vorticity

7-4. Conservation of Mass

7-5. Equations of Motion of a Fluid Particle

7-6. The Euler and Bernoulli Equations

7-7. The Stream Function

7-8. The Potential Function

7-9. Basic Two-Dimensional Flows

7-10. Superposition of Flows

7-11. The Navier-Stokes Equations

7-12. Computational Fluid Dynamics

**8 Dimensional Analysis and Similitude**

8-1. Dimensional Analysis

8-2. Important Dimensionless Numbers

8-3. The Buckingham Pi Theorem

8-4. Similitude

**9 Viscous Flow Within Enclosed Surfaces**

9-1. Steady Laminar Flow between Parallel Plates

9-2. Navier-Stokes Solution for Steady Laminar Flow Between Parallel Plates

9-3. Steady Laminar Flow Within A Smooth Pipe

9-3. Laminar and Turbulent Shear Stress Within a Smooth Pipe

9-4. Navier-Stokes Solution for Steady Laminar Flow Within a Smooth Pipe

9-5. The Reynolds Number

9-6. Laminar and Turbulent Shear Stress Within a Smooth Pipe

9-7. Fully Developed Flow From an Entrance

9-8. Turbulent Flow Within a Smooth Pipe

**10 Analysis and Design for Pipe Flow**

10-1. Resistance to Flow in Rough Pipes

10-2. Losses Occurring From Pipe Fittings And Transitions

10-3. Single Pipeline Flow

10-4. Pipe Systems

10-5. Flow Measurement

**11 Viscous Flow Over External Surfaces**

11-1. The Concept of the Boundary Layer

11-2. Laminar Boundary Layers

11-3. The Momentum Integral Equation

11-4. Turbulent Boundary Layers

11-5. Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers

11-6. Drag and Lift

11-7. Pressure Gradient Effects

11-8. The Drag Coefficient

11-9. Methods for Reducing Drag

11-10. Lift and Drag on an Airfoil

**12 Turbomachinery**

12-1. Types of Turbomachines

12-2. Axial-Flow Pumps

12-3. Ideal Performance for Axial-Flow Pumps

12-4. Radial-Flow Pumps

12-5. Turbines

12-6. Pump Performance

12-7. Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head

12-8. Pump Selection Related to the Flow System

12-9. Turbomachine Similitude

**13 Open Channel Flow **

13-1. Types of Flow in Open Channels

13-2. Wave Celerity

13-3. Specific Energy

13-4. Open Channel Flow Over a Rise

13-5. Open Channel Flow Through a Sluice Gate

13-6. Steady Uniform Channel Flow

13-7. Gradual Flow With Varying Depth

13-8. The Hydraulic Jump

13-9. Weirs

**14 Compressible Flow**

14-1. Thermodynamic Concepts

14-2. Wave Propagation Through a Compressible Fluid

14-3. Types of Compressible Flow

14-4. Isentropic Stagnation Properties

14-5. Isentropic Flow Through a Variable Area

14-6. Isentropic Flow Through Converging and Diverging Nozzles

14-7. Normal Shock Waves

14-8. Shock Waves in Nozzles

14-9. Oblique Shocks

14-10. Compression and Expansion Waves

14-11. Compressible Flow Measurement