So a firm usually has a specific budget they're working with when they're going to make their production, and they want to make that production at the lowest possible cost. Let's check out these ISO cost curves to see how that helps us make these decisions. So like I said, a firm is going to want to produce at the lowest possible cost. Right? So if they have a given quantity, let's say they want to make a 1,000 units. Well, they want to make those 1,000 units at the lowest possible cost. Right? So they're going to have to analyze the cost of their inputs and, like we saw in the ISO quant curves, right, when we studied ISO quant curves, well, that showed us different input combinations that resulted in levels of production. Well, now we're going to see the cost of those different input combinations. Cool? So what this is going to show us is all the combinations of 2 inputs. In this case, we're going to have labor and capital that result in the same cost. Okay? So we're going to have the same amount of cost for 2 different inputs. Okay? So let's go ahead and see how this works in our example.

Spooky Cookies bakes cookies with a budget of $24,000 that it can spend on its inputs, ovens, and bakers. Ovens cost $6,000 per month, and bakers cost $3,000 per month. Let's show Spooky's ISO cost line on the graph. So what we're going to want to do is basically, the best way to do this is to find how many ovens could we afford if we just bought ovens, and how many bakers could we afford if we just bought bakers, and then we'll make our ISO cost line based on those two points. Okay. So what we're going to do is we're going to put our ovens on one axis here, and put on the other axis, the bakers. It could go one way or the other. It doesn't matter which one's which. But, generally, what they do is they have the labor on the x-axis and the capital on the y-axis. It's generally how it's set up. So what we're going to use is this formula for maximum quantity. Well, if we want to know what the maximum is that we can afford of something, we're going to take our budget, the amount of money we have, and divide it by the price of that thing. Right? The budget divided by the price is going to give us the maximum we can afford. So let's see in our example, if we had a budget of $24,000 and we divide it by the cost of the ovens, well, $6,000 for 1 oven, we have $24,000 divided by a cost of $6,000. We can afford 4 ovens. Right? Four ovens, we can afford with $24,000. Not too complicated there. So if we spent no money on bakers, we could afford 4 ovens, and that's this point right here.

What about the other side? If we only got bakers and no ovens, well, we would have $24,000 divided by $3,000. $3,000 is the cost of a baker. That lets us have 8 bakers. Right? We can afford 8 bakers there behind me. So let's go ahead and plot that. So that would be a 0.5678 right here. That's 8 bakers we could afford, with our $24,000 budget and all we got to do is connect the line now. So this is going to be a straight line because the price isn't changing as we go. So we're just going to have a straight line here and try and get it better. My lines are off today. Still, one more try If this doesn't do it, we're going to just have to oh yeah. 4th time's the charm. That's how we do it. So what does this ISO cost line show us? So this is our ISO cost line here. This is it right here. The big reveal. This tells us that with $24,000, we can afford any point on that line. Meaning, we can afford right here. We can afford a point I can do it in a different color. We can afford this point right here where we have 4 bakers and 2 ovens. We can afford this point right here where we have 2 bakers and 3 ovens. Right? Anywhere along that line, we can afford. So by finding the maximum of each and just connecting them, that's the easiest way to set up this line. Okay? So this is helpful for a company. Right? Because now we know what we can afford. Different combinations we can afford and we can use our ISO quant lines to see what level of production we want to achieve and compare it with our ISO cost line to find the lowest possible cost. Okay? So that's about it for this video. Let's do some practice problems before we move on to the next video.