Riva, an eyewitness to a crime that took place on her street, was asked to testify in court about her memory of the crime. Prior to her testimony, an attorney provided her with a written statement from another neighbor who had also viewed the crime. As a result of reading her neighbor's statement, which was different from her own, the accuracy of Riva’s memory was altered, which eventually affected her testimony. This is an example of
the misinformation effect.
the levels-of-processing model.
the curve of forgetting.
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