5. Cell Components
Mitochondria & Chloroplasts
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in this video, we're going to begin our lesson on mitochondria and chloroplasts. But we're going to start focusing on Lee on the mitochondria and then later, in our course, in a different video, we'll talk about the chloroplasts. And so if you've ever taken a biology course before in the past, then you probably know that mitochondria, they are the powerhouse of the cell. And this is because mitochondria are organelles that synthesized lots and lots and lots of energy for the cell. And so that's why they call it the powerhouse of the cell because it provides the energy that the cell needs. Now the energy that the mitochondria provide for the self is in the form of a molecule called a dina seen triphosphate or for short, a T P. And so Adina Seen triphosphate, or a teepee, is a high energy molecule that is used to power cellular reactions. And so if the cell has ah lot of a teepee, then the cell has a lot of energy toe power. It's cellular reactions, but on the other hand, if the cell has a little bit of a teepee, then the cell only has a little bit of energy to power its cellular reactions. And so 80 p is really the energy for the cell. Now mitochondria perform, ah, process that's called cellular respiration. And so cellular respiration is just the name of the mitochondrial process that breaks down food sources like sugars and lipids in order to make lots and lots and lots of a t. P, or in order to make lots and lots and lots of energy for the cell. And so later, in our course, in a different video, we'll talk a lot more details about cellular respiration. But here in this video, you should just know that mitochondria perform cellular respiration in order to break down food sources and make lots and lots of p or energy for the cell. And so, if we take a look at our image over here on the left hand side, notice that we're zooming in here to a eukaryotic cell, and, uh, here we're focusing on a specific organ. L. The mitochondria in the mitochondria function specifically as the powerhouse of the cell, and that's because it provides lots and lots and lots of a teepee or energy for the cell. And so, uh, the energy that's being provided is a teepee which can be abbreviated on Shown like this, but really a denizen, triphosphate or a teepee, is a molecule that can also be shown in this form right here. Where again? The t uh, here in a denizen Triphosphate stands for Try and Tri means three, which means that it has three phosphate groups. And so you can see the three phosphate groups down below here in our image. And so the rest of this here eyes going to be a sugar. And this part up here is going to be a nitrogenous base of adding. And so that means that a. T. P, uh is a nucleotide, which we covered nucleotides when we talked about nucleic acids and some of our previous lesson videos. But once again, the main take away here is that mitochondria They are the powerhouse of the cell, providing lots and lots of energy for the cell in the form of a teepee and cellular respiration is the name of the process that makes a TP for the self. And so this year concludes our introduction to the mitochondria, and our next video will be able to talk about the components and the structure of the mitochondria itself. So I'll see you all there
Mitochondria & Chloroplasts Example 1
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all right. So here we have an example problem that's asking which of the following processes is highly associated with mitochondria, and we've got these four potential answer options down below now. Option A, says photosynthesis. But this is not a process that's highly associated with mitochondria. And so, for that reason, we could go ahead and cross off Option A instead. What we'll learn a little bit later in our courses that photosynthesis is a process highly associated with chloroplasts. Now Option B here, says Plas Mal Asus, which is a process that we have not yet introduced in our course. We'll talk a little bit more about Plas Mal Asus later in our course when we're talking about osmosis. But for now, we haven't introduced this yet, so we should have been able to eliminate answer Option B and then also with answer option D. It says Cree Nation, which is another process that we have not yet talked about. And we'll get to talk more about cremation a little bit later in our course when we're talking about osmosis as well. But of course, we know from our last lesson video that cellular respiration is the name of the mitochondrial process that breaks down foods to create a teepee, or energy for the cell. And so cellular respiration is the process that is highly associated with mitochondria. And so see, here is the correct answer to this example problem, and that concludes this example. So I'll see you all in our next video.
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in this video, we're going to talk about mitochondrial structure, and so mitochondria in textbooks. They're always shown with the same typical shape, which is this being type of shape that you see down below in our image. But in reality, it turns out that mitochondria they could actually vary in their shape, and they're not always being shaped. They can be all kinds of different shapes and also mitochondria. They have their own set of ribosomes as well as their own set of D N A and the ribosomes. They are independent from the ribosomes that air found throughout the rest of the cell. And the DNA that's found in the mitochondria is also independent of the DNA found in the rest of the cells, such as the nuclear DNA. Now, when it comes to mitochondrial structure, they actually have several different structures and regions that we should be aware about. So the first thing that you should know about their structures that mitochondria have two membranes, not just one membrane. They have two membranes, they have an outer membrane, and then they also have ah folded inner membrane. And the folded inner membrane, of course, is gonna have folds in it, and the folds in the inner membrane are called Crist A. And so we'll be able to see that down below when we get to our image. Now the region that's in between the two membranes, the outer mitochondrial membrane and the inner mitochondrial membrane. That region that's in between the two is called the inter membrane space, and so we'll be able to see that down below in our image as well. And then, of course, the Matrix is specifically referring to another region within the mitochondria, and it's the region that's within the inner membrane. And so the region that's within the inner membrane contains enzymes, ribosomes and mitochondrial DNA. So let's take a look at our image down below to get a better understanding of mitochondrial structure. So the first thing to note is that the mitochondria are going to have to membranes and outer membrane, but also a folded inner membrane. So the outer membrane, which I'll put here in red, would be the membrane that s'more simple. There's no folds in the outer membrane, but when you take a look at the inner membrane, which I'll highlight here in green, the folded inner membrane would be this, uh, structure that you see right here and so you'll see that it creates all of these folds. I'm gonna use a different color so you could see a little bit easier. You could see that it creates all of these folds in here, Um, and the inner membrane. It's not really just rounded and smooth that's folded. It's highly folded, Okay, And those folds that you see in the inner membrane are called Chris Stay, and the space that's in between the outer membrane and the inner membrane is called the inter membrane space. So it's the region between the two membranes, and then the matrix is referring to the region that's within the inner membrane. And so the matrix here is colored with a blue color throughout this image that's referring to the Matrix. And so the Matrix contains enzymes, ribosomes and mitochondrial DNA. So if we zoom into the matrix here, which will notice is that it contains enzymes which we're showing you are represented here in the image. Uh, they also contain ribosomes, which are represented as thes green circles in the image, and they also contain mitochondrial DNA, which is circular in its shape on DSO this year really concludes mitochondrial structure and we'll be able to get some practice applying the concepts that we've learned here as we move forward in our course. So I'll see you all in our next video.
Which part of a mitochondria contains the mitochondrial DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes?
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in this video, we're going to introduce chloroplasts. And so chloroplasts are organelles that are actually green in color and so chloroplast. They are green organelles and they function specifically as the site of a process called photo synthesis. And this process of photosynthesis occurs in many plant cells that contain these green chloroplasts organelles. But what is this process of photosynthesis? Exactly? Well, photosynthesis is once again a cellular process that uses energy from the sun or sunlight in order to synthesize or to produce sugars such as glucose, for instance. And so, if we take a look at our image down below, over here on the left hand side, notice that we're showing you an image using a light microscope, looking at plant cells that contain chloroplasts. And so all of these green circles that you see here throughout this image represent chloroplasts. And once again, chloroplasts are these green organelles that function as the site of photosynthesis, the process that uses energy from the sunlight to synthesize sugars such as glucose. So over here on the right hand side, we're showing you a little reaction here for the process of photosynthesis, which occurs in many plant cells So here what we're showing you is a plant that is conducting the process of photosynthesis and photosynthesis. What it does is it converts carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or CO two from the atmosphere. Also water from the environment or atmosphere. And it takes carbon dioxide water along with the sunlight from the environment or the atmosphere which we're showing you here. And it converts the carbon dioxide, the water and the sunlight, and it converts them to create sugars like what we see right here, which would actually represent glucose, which is a very specific sugar. And in addition to creating the sugar, it also creates oxygen, gas or oh, to like what we see here, which is a really important gas for us because we breathe in oxygen, gas and so plants because they perform photosynthesis, they produce a lot of the oxygen gas that we breathe in. And so this here concludes our introduction to chloroplasts and how chloroplasts are these green organelles that serve as the site of photosynthesis inside of many plant cells and photosynthesis is the process that uses sunlight to synthesize sugars. And so, uh, now that we've covered the general basics of the chloroplasts, and our next video will be able to talk about the structures of the chloroplast, so I'll see you guys in that video.
The products of photosynthesis are:
Water & Carbon Dioxide.
Oxygen & Water
Sugar & Water.
Oxygen & Sugar.
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in this video, we're going to talk about chloroplast structure and so very similarly to mitochondria. Chloroplasts actually have two membranes. They have an outer membrane and they have an inner membrane as well. But unlike mitochondria, neither of the chloroplast membranes have folds or Chris stay and recall from our previous lesson videos that mitochondria have folds or Chris stay in the inner mitochondrial membrane. But once again, the chloroplast membranes, neither of them have folds or Christie. And so if we take a look at our image down below, notice the left hand side of our images showing the same light microscope image from our last lesson video zooming into plant cells. And all of these green circles that we see here represent chloroplasts. And so if we zoom in tow one of these green circles, it'll look something like this. What we're showing you here. And so the first thing to note about the chloroplast that we're showing you here is that it has two membranes. It has an outer membrane that we're labeling right here on the outside. And then it has an inner membrane as well. That's on the inside. But notice that neither the outer membrane or the inner membrane has folds or Christie, they don't have folds or Christie. Now you'll also notice that inside of the chloroplast there are these other structures, and one of the things that you'll notice right away are these green pancake looking structures that are all over the place on the inside. And these green pancake looking structures are called Fila Coy AIDS. And so Thilo Coid are interconnected, pancake shaped sacks that are within the chloroplast, and they're very important for, ah, part of the photosynthesis reaction. Now you'll also notice that the Thilo coins each of these individual green pancake looking structures are forming stacks, and these stacks of the Thill, a coid, are referred to as Grana. And that is the plural form here. So grana are referring to stacks of Fila coId or, in other words, stacks of the green pancakes or green pancakes Tax, if you will now remember these green looking pancakes, they're not actually pancakes, of course. They're called Villa Coy AIDS and the space, the innermost region of the chloroplast, is specifically referred to as the Strom A. And so the Strom A is pretty much equivalent to the matrix of the mitochondria. And so it's the innermost region of the chloroplast that contains enzymes, ribosomes and chloroplast DNA as well. And so down below in our image, noticed that were saying that the Shoma well, it's just the innermost region here. It's basically the space that fills the middle. I'm sorry, the chloroplast here on the innermost region here. And so this year concludes our introduction to chloroplast structure. And we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward in our course. So I'll see you all in our next video.
Thylakoids, DNA, and ribosomes are all components found in ________.
Additional resources for Mitochondria & Chloroplasts
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