11. Cell Division
Cell Cycle Regulation
Cell Cycle Regulation
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and this video, we're going to begin our introduction to cell cycle regulation. And so the cell cycle, which includes cell division, is actually really, really highly controlled and regulated. And so a cell is not supposed to divide whenever it wants. A cell is on. Lee supposed to divide whenever receives the appropriate signals for it to divide. And so cell division is really, really highly controlled and actually activated by a variety of cellular signals in the form of proteins called growth factors. And so growth factors can be defined as a biological substance that promotes cell division. And so once again, a cell is not supposed to divide whenever it wants. A cell is on Lee supposed to divide whenever it receives the appropriate signals that promote cell division. Now, in addition to the growth factors that contribute, er cell division, uh, there are also multiple cell cycle checkpoints that are also going to be very, very important in the regulation of the cell cycle. And so, as we'll move forward as we move forward in our course, we're going to talk more and more about the cell cycle checkpoints. But ultimately what these cell cycle checkpoints do is they kind of act like little stop signs for a cell. And so the cell will actually stop at these checkpoints. And so the checkpoints are going to prevent the cell from entering the next phase prematurely. And so the checkpoints are away for the cell to kind of stop and check to make sure everything is okay. Make sure that there are no errors before it proceeds into the next phase. And so if an error is actually detected at any checkpoint, then a protein called P 53 can actually either trigger repair of the air to try to fix the air. But if the air cannot be repaired, then the P 53 protein can also trigger another process called a pop toe sis. And so apoptosis is really programmed. Cell death and apoptosis can actually be a good thing. Um, even though it may seem like a bad thing cells dying, a apoptosis cell death would be triggered if too many errors accumulate. And so by the cell undergoing apoptosis, or cell death, it's actually preventing the accumulation of errors. And so apoptosis once again can be a good thing. Under the right scenario, And so really, it's actually a cell that ignores these cell cycle checkpoints that can actually lead to problems more specifically, lead to the development of cancer. And so later, in our course, we're also going to talk Maura Maura about cancer as well. And so, as we move forward in our course and talk Maura about thes cell cycle checkpoints, it's important for you to keep in mind that these cell cycle checkpoints are very important for regulating the cell cycle to ensure that cancer does not develop. And so this here concludes our introduction to cell cycle regulation, and as we move forward in our course, we'll talk about these cell cycle checkpoints, so I'll see you all in our next video.
Cell Cycle Checkpoints
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in this video, we're going to introduce the cell cycle checkpoints. And so recall from our last lesson video that these cell cycle checkpoints are very important for controlling or regulating the cell cycle to make sure that errors do not accumulate and to make sure that the cell does not prematurely enter the next phase of the cell cycle. And so these cell cycle checkpoints really act like stop signs where the cell can pretty much stop and make sure everything is okay before it moves on to the next phase. And so we're going to talk about four major checkpoints that control the progress of the cell cycle. And so if we take a look at our image down below notice, we're showing you the image of the cell cycle from our previous lesson videos. But notice here that we've included the four major checkpoints which pretty much act like stop signs throughout the cell cycle, where the cell will literally stop it each of these checkpoints to make sure that everything is okay before it proceeds into the next phase. And so notice that we have these four checkpoints here at each of these positions and so at each of these checkpoints, they're going to be very specific events that occur. And what's really important for you all to note is that the events of these checkpoints really don't need to be memorized. You don't need to memorize them if you understand the cell cycle itself. And so if you understand the events that occur at each phase of the cell cycle, then really you don't need to memorize these checkpoints because the checkpoints and the events that occurred, the checkpoints are going to be dictated by the events that occur in the cell cycle. And so the very first checkpoint that we're going to talk about is the G one checkpoint, which occurs right at the end of the G one phase of interphase. And so notice that here is the G one phase of interphase and right at the end of the G one phase of interphase, there is the G one checkpoint, which again is gonna act like a stop sign for the cell where the cell is going to stop to make sure that everything is okay before it proceeds. And so, at the G one checkpoint, what we need to realize is that, uh, the G one comes just before the S phase, and the S phase is where the DNA is going to get replicated or duplicated or synthesized. And so, before the DNA gets replicated or duplicated or synthesized, the cell needs to make sure that the DNA doesn't have any errors in it. And if the DNA does have errors in it, then the DNA needs to be fixed before the DNA gets replicated. Otherwise, the DNA, uh, the errors that air in the DNA are just going to get replicated, and that won't be something good. And so this G one checkpoint again, it's gonna be dictated by the events of the phases that come after. And so during the G one checkpoint again, which acts like a stop sign for the cell, the cell is going to stop and fix any damage or mutated DNA in preparation for DNA replication in the S phase. And so, of course, after the s phase, the DNA is going to get replicated and the centrism is also going to get replicated, and that leads us to our second checkpoint, which comes at the end of the S phase. The S checkpoint. And so if we go up here, we can see that the second checkpoint here is going to be the s checkpoint. And, of course, during the S checkpoint. What we need to realize is that the cell has just finished replicating or duplicating or synthesizing its DNA. And so what the cell wants to do is it actually wants to confirm the proper replication of the DNA to make sure that the DNA was replicated completely and fully and properly. And so Thea s checkpoint is going to confirm proper replication of the genetic material, and it's also going to attempt to fix any errors that may have occurred. And so that is what happens at the S checkpoint and then notice that the third checkpoint after that is the G to checkpoint, which comes at the end of the G two phase. And what we need to realize about this G to check point is that the G to checkpoint comes just before, uh, the M phase might Assis. And so at the G to checkpoint the sell pretty much wants to make sure that it has all of the enzymes and proteins that it needs in order for my toast is to proceed properly. And so that's exactly what is going to happen here at the G to checkpoint at the G to checkpoint the cell again is going to stop because the checkpoints kind of act like stop signs and the cell is going to stop and ensure that all of the enzymes and proteins that are needed for my toasts and psychokinesis are available. And if they're not available again, the cell is going to stop at this checkpoint to make sure that they are available. And then, of course, last but not least, we have our final checkpoint here, which is the M checkpoint, which comes right in the middle here at Meta phase. And so, of course, during meta phase, we know that all the chromosomes are supposed to line up in the middle, and that's exactly what the M checkpoint is checking for. So during the M checkpoint, which really is the meta phase checkpoint, the cell is going to stop and confirm that all of the chromosomes have actually aligned properly at the middle of the cell. And so it's going to check to confirm that all chromosomes are aligned in the spindle fibers are attached properly. And so again, if any of these checkpoints are not working properly, then that can lead to an unregulated cell cycle. And ultimately that can lead to the development of cancer. And so these checkpoints are very, very important to make sure that the cell cycle is under control and that it's regulated properly. So that cell division occurs on Lee when it's supposed to, and that cell division occurs properly. And so this year concludes our introduction to the four cell cycle checkpoints, and we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward in our course, so I'll see you all in our next video.
Checkpoints within the cell cycle:
Are located within interphase and allow entry to G0.
Are located within G1, S and G2.
Are located within G1, M and G2.
Are located within G1, M, S and G2.
Are located within all the phases of the cell cycle.
The M phase checkpoint ensures that all chromosomes are attached to the mitotic spindle. If this does not happen, cells would most likely be arrested in ________.
Which of the following cell cycle checkpoints ensures that the genetic material is fully replicated before mitosis?
Additional resources for Cell Cycle Regulation
PRACTICE PROBLEMS AND ACTIVITIES (7)
- The hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form bushy structures after making contact with the plasma me...
- The decline of MPF activity at the end of mitosis is due to a. the destruction of the protein kinase Cdk. b. d...
- Which of the following occurs during apoptosis? (A) lysis of the cell (B) direct contact between signaling c...
- Apoptosis involves all but which of the following? a. fragmentation of the DNA b. cell-signaling pathways c. l...
- In the cells of some organisms, mitosis occurs without cytokinesis. This will result in a. cells with more tha...
- Cytochalasin B is a chemical that disrupts microfilament formation. This chemical would interfere with a. DNA ...
- Discuss the factors that control the division of eukaryotic cells grown in the laboratory. Cancer cells are ea...