11. Cell Division
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in this video, we're going to begin our introduction to psychokinesis and so recall from our previous lesson videos that the M phase of the cell cycle consists of both mitosis and psychokinesis. Now, already, in our previous lesson videos, we've covered the five phases of mitosis and recall that mitosis ends up dividing the nucleus. And at the end of my toes, issue still technically have a single cell with two nuclei, and so this means that might Asus needs to be followed up by another process called cytokine. Icis and psychokinesis is technically the process that's going to produce two identical daughter cells separating the two nuclei. And so psychokinesis can be defined as the division of the cytoplasm, essentially separating the cells separating one cell into two cells. And so it turns out that animal and plant cell psychokinesis actually differ, and their mechanism and so moving forward we're going to talk about animal psychokinesis on and plant psychokinesis in their own separate videos. So I'll see you all in our next video to talk about animal cell psychokinesis
Animal Cell Cytokinesis
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In this video, we're going to introduce animal cell psychokinesis. And so, in animal cells, psychokinesis is characterized by the formation of what's known as a cleavage furrow. And so a cleavage furrow is really just a small indentation of acting filaments mainly, and some myosin filaments as well at the center of a dividing cell. And so this cleavage furrow ultimately is going to result in the pinching of the cytoplasm and the separation of the two cells. And so, if we take a look at our image down below, over here on the left hand side, notice we're showing you a cell right after mitosis and recall that mitosis technically ends with a single cell that has two nuclei and so notice that we still have a single cell here. This is a cell that eyes still a single cell because the cytoplasm is still connected here and noticed that there are two, uh, nuclei here. And so what you'll notice is that my toast is technically does not end with two cells, and so my toes is needs to be followed up by the process of psychokinesis and psychokinesis is what's going to separate the cytoplasm essentially separating this single cell tow form to cells. And so, during animal cells, psychokinesis a structure referred to as the cleavage furrow is going to form. And really, the cleavage furrow is just this indentation that you can see that forms and the indentation is forming from the result of these contract out acting micro filaments and myosin filaments that form in the middle or in the center of the dividing cell. And so, ultimately, this cleavage furrow is going to continue to pinch off the cytoplasm until the two, uh, the cytoplasm has been divided into two cells have their own cytoplasm and their own nucleus. And so these here would represent the daughter cells that result. And so technically, uh, tell a phase, which is the final phase of mitosis and psychokinesis are going to occur simultaneously, which is why might Oh, sis is technically is so highly linked to creating two daughter cells. But technically it's the process of mitosis and psychokinesis that leads to the two daughter cells. And so this here concludes our introduction to animal cell psychokinesis and how it's characterized by the formation of the cleavage furrow. And this is going to be different when we look at plant cell psychokinesis in our next video. So I'll see you all there
Cytokinesis Example 1
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all right. So here we have an example Problem that's asking, why is psychokinesis an important part of cell division? And after reading through each of these four answer options down below, there are few that we can eliminate right off the bat. And so, taking a look at Option D down below, it says that psychokinesis is responsible for the growth and production of new organelles and other cytoplasmic contents. But of course, we know that this is not the role of psychokinesis this option Option D is more so. The role of interphase. But interphase and psychokinesis are not the same thing, so we can go ahead and cross off. Answer. Option d Answer. Option C says that psychokinesis is responsible for the linking of two Sister Chromatis. But of course, that's not going to be the case. A tall That's not what we discussed in our previous lesson videos. And so now we're between answer option a and answer option B and notice. Answer. Option A says that psychokinesis is responsible for the proper separation of genetic information, but technically it's my toe sis that is separating the genetic information, which is the DNA and separating the two, the single nucleus to form two nuclei. And so really, it's my toe, sis, that is responsible for the proper separation of the genetic information. And so my toe sis is slightly different from psychokinesis. And so option A is mawr so linked to mitosis, not psychokinesis. And so, of course, this Onley leaves answer option be here as the correct answer. And so psychokinesis is an important part of cell division because it is responsible for the proper separation of the cytoplasmic contents. And that's really how psychokinesis is defined as division of the cytoplasm. And so answer Option B here is gonna be the correct answer for this example problem. And that concludes this example. So I'll see you all in our next video.
In animal cell cytokinesis, a cleavage furrow is ________.
A ring of vesicles forming a cell wall.
The equatorial line which chromosomes align along during mitosis.
A groove in the plasma membrane between daughter nuclei.
The space that is created between two chromatids during anaphase.
Plant Cell Cytokinesis
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in this video, we're going to introduce plant cell psychokinesis. And so plant cell psychokinesis is going to be different than animal cell psychokinesis because in plant cells psychokinesis, there is no cleavage furrow. And so what we need to recall from our previous lesson videos is that, unlike animal cells, plant cells are actually surrounded by a cell wall and so notice that in our image down below the cell wall is color coordinated to this dark green color. And so what's important to note is that again, in plant cell psychokinesis, there is no cleavage furrow that forms instead Golgi or I'm sorry. Vesicles from the Golgi apparatus are going to carry materials to generate what's known as a cell plate, and the cell plate is ultimately going to be responsible for helping to separate each of the daughter cells. And so instead of a cleavage furrow forming like what happens in animal cells and plant cells, a cell plate will form instead of the cleavage furrow. And so the cell plate you can really just think of as the precursor structure to ah fully developed cell wall. And so the cell plate forms first and ultimately the cell plate ends up developing into a fully mature cell walk. And so if we take a look at our image down below notice Over here on the far left hand side, we were showing you a plant cell here that has a cell wall and notice that this plant cell is undergoing my toe, sis. And so you can see here that it's undergoing an a phase where the chroma sister chromatic, they're being pulled apart from one another and notice that right here in the middle of the cell, instead of a cleavage furrow forming, we have Golgi, vesicles or vesicles from the Golgi apparatus starting to accumulate and form here in the middle of the cell. And again recall that these vesicles from the Golgi apparatus are carrying the materials to generate a cell plate. So ultimately, what we're gonna see is that these Golgi vesicles air going to form a cell plate. And so notice that as my toasts continues here, uh, there is a structure here forming in the middle of the Celt, referred to as the cell plate. And ultimately, this cell play is going to continue to develop over time to form a fully mature, uh, cell wall, which is what we're labeling over here. And so once the fully mature cell wall has been formed, then, uh, the plant cell has successfully undergone, Ah, full complete cell division. And so again, the biggest take away here is that in animal cells, it's the cleavage furrow that forms. But in plant cells, it's the cell plate that forms and ends up developing into a cell wall. And so this here concludes our introduction to plant cell psychokinesis, and we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward in our course, So I'll see you all in our next video.
Which of the following are primarily responsible for cytokinesis in plant cells?
Actin and myosin.
FtsZ is a bacterial cytoskeletal protein that forms a contractile ring involved in binary fission. Its function is analogous to ________.
the cleavage furrow of eukaryotic animal cells.
the cell plate of eukaryotic plant cells.
the mitotic spindle of eukaryotic cells.
the microtubule-organizing center of eukaryotic cells.
Additional resources for Cytokinesis
PRACTICE PROBLEMS AND ACTIVITIES (8)
- Through a microscope, you can see a cell plate beginning to develop across the middle of a cell and nuclei for...
- What does it mean to say that a hypha is dikaryotic? a. Two nuclei fuse during sexual reproduction to form a z...
- The Greek root ecto means “outer.” Why are ectomycorrhizal fungi, or EMF, aptly named? a. Their hyphae form tr...
- Explain why fungi that degrade dead plant materials are important to the global carbon cycle. Do you accept th...
- The drug cytochalasin B blocks the function of actin. Which of the following aspects of the animal cell cycle ...
- DRAW IT Draw one eukaryotic chromosome as it would appear during interphase, during each of the stages of mito...
- An organism called a plasmodial slime mold is one large cytoplasmic mass with many nuclei. Explain how such a ...
- Compare cytokinesis in plant and animal cells. In what ways are the two processes similar? In what ways are th...