General Biology

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15. Gene Expression

Review of Transcription vs. Translation


Review of Transcription vs. Translation

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in this video, we're going to do a review of transcription and translation. And so we're basically going to be reviewing comparing and contrasting transcription and translation, and so notice that we have this table down below right here that we're going to fill out and notice that this column right here is all about transcription. And this column over here is all about translation. And so, in terms of the product that is formed, of course, transcription is going to be the process that uses DNA to build RNA. And so the product that's formed for transcription is an RNA molecule. Now, in terms of translation, translation is going to be the process of using a non RNA molecule toe. Build a protein, and so the protein is going to be the product that is formed Now, in terms of, is there a macro molecule change or a change in the class of macro molecule? It turns out that transcription, really there's no change in the class of macro molecule because it's going from DNA and using the DNA to build our DNA. But DNA and RNA are both nucleic acids, and so it's going from DNA nucleic acids to Arna nucleic acids. And because they're both nucleic acids, there is no macro molecule change in terms of the classes of macro molecules. However, when it comes to translation, there is a macro molecule class change because we go from having RNA new Clegg acids into having proteins which are going to be made of amino acids. And so, uh, what you'll see here is that going from nucleic acids to proteins is a change in the macro molecule class. Now, in terms of the major enzyme or structure that's involved with the process for transcription, the major enzyme is going to be Arna prelim a race, and that is going to be the main enzyme involved. A transcription that builds the RNA now for translation. Recall that the major enzyme or structure, is going to be the Reiber zone. And so the ribs, um, is the main primary structure involved with the building of the protein during translation. Now, in terms of the location of each of these processes, transcription because it uses DNA to build RNA and DNA and eukaryotes is found in the nucleus. The location of transcription for eukaryotes is going to be in the nucleus of the Eukaryotic cell. Now translation, on the other hand, is going to occur in the cytoplasm of the Eukaryotic cell in the outside of the nucleus. Now, in terms of the direction of synthesis for the particular molecule that's being made the RNA molecule during transcription. Its direction of synthesis is from five prime to three prime. So the RNA molecule will be built from its own five prime men towards its own three prime end. Now the protein during translation. The direction of its synthesis is going to be from its N terminal end, where the Amino group is to its C terminal end, where the car boxful group is. And so this here concludes our brief review of transcription and translation, and we'll be able to get some more practice with transcription and translation as we move forward in our course. So I'll see you all in our next video

What is the central dogma of molecular biology directly referring to?


Consider a DNA template strand of the following sequence: 5’-A C T G C C A G G A A T-3’.

A) What is the sequence of the corresponding DNA coding strand?  Include directionality.

   DNA Template Strand:  5’-A C T G C C A G G A A T-3’.

   DNA Coding Strand:

B) What is the sequence of the corresponding mRNA strand?  Include directionality.

   mRNA Strand:

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Consider a DNA coding strand with the following sequence:  3’-C T T C A T A G C T C G-5’.

Use the genetic code to determine the corresponding amino acid sequence of the translated protein.

      DNA Coding Strand: 3’- C  T  T  C  A  T  A  G  C  T  C  G -5’

               mRNA Strand:

         Protein Sequence:

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Which of the following polypeptide chains are synthesized from the RNA sequence: