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General Biology

Learn the toughest concepts covered in Biology1&2 with step-by-step video tutorials and practice problems by world-class tutors

8. Respiration

Introduction to Cellular Respiration

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Introduction to Cellular Respiration

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in this video, we're going to begin our introduction to aerobic cellular respiration. And so aerobic cellular respiration, as its name implies with the term air aerobic is an air aerobic process itself and will define what aerobic means down below here shortly. But more specifically, aerobic cellular respiration is the Arabic process of breaking down glucose to make lots and lots of a T, P or energy for the cell. And really, this is the main purpose of Arabic. Cellular respiration is to make lots and lots of 80 p or energy for the cell. Now this term air aerobic refers to the requirement of the presence of oxygen gas, or 02 which is the chemical formula for oxygen gas. And so aerobic cellular respiration is an Arabic process, which means that it needs or requires oxygen gas in order to break down glucose and make lots and lots of a teepee. Now, as we move forward in our course, we're going to talk Mawr and Maura about aerobic cellular respiration, and what we'll learn is that aerobic cellular respiration actually occurs in multiple stages, and we'll talk about all of these stages as we move forward in our course. But what will learn is that most of the stages of aerobic cellular respiration occur inside of the mitochondria of the cell. And so you want to be able to make an association between mitochondria and Arabic cellular respiration and so down below. If we take a look at our example, image will find the overall chemical equation for Arabic cellular respiration and once again, because most of the stages occur inside of the mitochondria Notice. Over here we have an image of the mitochondria of the cell, so we're already starting to associate the mitochondria with cellular respiration and so notice that cellular respiration takes food such as sugar or a mono sacha ride called glucose. So basically it takes glucose, and it's able to convert glucose along with oxygen gas into carbon dioxide, gas, water and, arguably the most important product a teepee or energy for the cell. And so, ultimately, what we'll see with cellular respiration is that it takes foods such as glucose, sugars and oxygen gas from the atmosphere, and uses those to create lots and lots of a teepee or energy for the cell. And then it also creates carbon dioxide and water as byproducts. And so, once again, cellular respiration. We're showing here as just one reaction arrow, but it turns out that cellular respiration consists of multiple stages. And so we're going to talk about these stages as we move forward in our course. And so this year concludes our brief introduction to aerobic cellular respiration. And once again we'll get to learn Mawr and Mawr as we move forward in our course. So I'll see you all in our next video.
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Aerobic Cellular Respiration is a Redox Reaction

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in this video, we're going to talk about how aerobic cellular respiration is a Redox reaction. And so, once again, the overall chemical equation for aerobic cellular respiration is a Redox reaction, which recall from our previous lesson videos just means that it involves the transfer of electrons between molecules and recall that way that we can remember. Redox reactions is by remembering Leo the Lion goes Ger and so recall from our previous lesson videos that substances that lose electrons are oxidized, whereas substances that gain electrons are reduced. And so what we'll learn here is that by the very end of the process, aerobic cellular respiration glucose is going to lose electrons, which means that glucose is going to be oxidized. And on the other hand, oxygen gas is going to gain electrons. And so oxygen gas is going to be reduced. And what will learn much later in our courses that oxygen is going to be the final electron except er, meaning that it's going to be the last thing that accepts or gains the electron, so that goes hand in hand with oxygen being reduced. So let's take a look at our example down below at the chemical equation for Arabic cellular respiration. And so notice over here on the left hand side, we're showing you the chemical structure for glucose, and you all should know that glucose is chemical formula is C six h 12 06 And so you should be able to recognize C six h 12 06 as the chemical formula for glucose and so Arabic cellular respiration is going to take glucose as well as oxygen gas. More specifically, six molecules of oxygen gas. And it's going to convert the glucose and the six molecules of oxygen gas into six molecules of carbon dioxide gas, six molecules of water and ah, whole bunch of a teepee somewhere between 30 to 38 80 p. And really, once again, making lots and lots of 80 p is really the main point of Arabic. Cellular respiration is to make lots and lots of 80 p, so basically what it does is it breaks down foods such as sugars like the mono sack ride, glucose using oxygen, and when it breaks down that glucose those foods, it is able to form lots and lots and lots of ATP, and it also makes again carbon dioxide and water as a byproduct. Now what you'll notice here is that the glucose molecule is going to be losing electrons during this process, so the glucose molecule is going to be oxidized and all of those electrons are gonna be used to generate a teepee. And also the oxygen gas molecule here is going to be gaining. The electrons will learn later in our course that oxygen is the final Elektronik sector that gains the electrons. And because it's gaining the electrons, oxygen gas is going to be reduced and ultimately converted into water. And so this year is a chemical reaction that you all should be very familiar with and be able to recognize for your exams, since professors tend to want their students to be very familiar with this overall chemical equation for Arabic cellular respiration. And so this year concludes our introduction to how aerobic cellular respiration is a Redox reaction, and we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward in our course. And we'll also continue to learn Maura Maura about aerobic cellular respiration as we move forward as well. So I'll see you all in our next video
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Problem

Which one of the following molecules is a by-product of cellular respiration?

a) Water.

b) Glucose.

c) Pyruvate.

d) Oxygen.

e) ADP.

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Problem

Which of the summary statements below describes the results of the following reaction?

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 H2O + Energy


a) C6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is reduced.

b) O2 is oxidized and H2O is reduced.

c) CO2 is reduced and O2 is oxidized.

d) O2 is reduced and CO2 is oxidized.

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Stages of Aerobic Cellular Respiration

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so recall from our previous lesson videos that aerobic cellular respiration actually occurs in multiple stages, most of which occur inside of the mitochondria. And so here in this video, we're going to briefly introduce the stages of aerobic cellular respiration. But moving forward in our course, we're going to talk about each of these individual stages in morte detail and their own separate videos. And so here we're saying, the Arabic cellular respiration actually includes for metabolic pathways or reactions or four stages, if you will, and so down below. What we have is an image that's showing you once again the four stages of aerobic cellular respiration. And so the very first stage is going to be glide. Kalle assists, and so you can put a one here in this yellow circle. The second stage is going to be Piru oxidation. The third stage is the Krebs cycle, which is also commonly referred to as the citric acid cycle, and the fourth stage is going to be the electron transport chain and Kimmy as Moses. And so, once again, as we move forward in our course, we'll talk about each of these four stages here in their own separate videos and more detail. But you should know that these are the four stages of aerobic cellular respiration, and you should be able to put them into the correct order and also notice that most of the stages of aerobic cellular respiration occur inside of the mitochondria. And so this image that we have in the background here represents the mitochondria of the cell, and so notice that stages 23 and four all occur inside of the mitochondria of the South. Whereas Glide Collis is is the Onley stage of aerobic cellular respiration that does not occur inside of the mitochondria, it actually occurs just outside of the mitochondria in the area known as the Cytoplasm. And so that's another take away that will continue to revisit, um, as we move forward in our course. But for now, these here are the four stages of aerobic cellular respiration. And once again, we'll get to talk Mawr and Maura about these stages as we move forward. So I'll see you all in our next video
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Remembering Stages of Aerobic Cellular Respiration

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in this video, I'm going to share with you a silly way to help you remember the stages of aerobic cellular respiration, which you might recall from our previous lesson videos is glycol assist, pyrite oxidation, the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. And so all you need to do to remember the aerobic cellular respiration stages in the correct order is that giant pandas healed ein thigh and so notice down below, we're showing you here giant panda that is attacking and killing Einstein right here. And so if you can remember giant pandas killed Einstein, then hopefully that can help you remember the four stages of aerobic cellular respiration in the correct order, which are once again like a'Lexus piru oxidation, the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. And so the first letter here of these words are all matching up. And so again, it's just a silly way to help you remember these stages. And so that being said, this here concludes this video and I'll see you all in our next one.
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example

Introduction to Cellular Respiration Example 1

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So here we have an example problem that's asking which of the following options list the stages of Arabic cellular respiration in the correct order. And we've got these four potential answer options down below. And so, of course, we know from our last lesson video that when it comes to remembering the stages of Arabic cellular respiration in the correct order, really, all we need to remember is that giant pandas killed Elvis and by remembering that giant pandas killed Elvis will be able to remember the stages in the correct order and so recall that the giant pandas killing Elvis stands for the G P K e here and the giant stands for, like Kalle assist the P stands for Piroozi oxidation. The K here stands for Krebs cycle, and the E here stands for electron Transport chan in Kenya's Moses. And so it needs to be these stages and this particular order and the only answer option that matches this particular order from our pneumonic is Option B like Collis is followed by Peruvian oxidation, followed by Krebs Cycle and then finally the electron transport chain and Kenya's Moses. And so Option B here is going to be the correct answer for this example problem. And that concludes this example. So I'll see you all in our next video.
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Map of the Lesson on Cellular Respiration

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in this video, we're going to introduce our map of the lesson on cellular respiration, which is this image down below right here. And so once again, you can use this image as a map for our lesson. And so the way that we're going to explore this map is by starting at the top and then following the left most branches first, and we'll cover the branches from left to right as we go. And then after we explore the left, most branches will start to explore the right branches and follow these pathways here. And so what you'll see from this map of the lesson is that cellular respiration could take place with oxygen, otherwise known as aerobic respiration, where oxygen is going to act as the final electron except ER and we already know from our previous lesson videos that the four stages of aerobic cellular respiration are. Glen Collis is Pirated oxidation, the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain and Kenya's Moses. And so we'll learn that the whole purpose of aerobic cellular respiration is to make lots and lots of a TP for the cell or make lots and lots of energy for the cell and that energy. What we'll learn is that it could be made in two different ways. It could be made via substrate level, foster relation and glide. Collis is and in the Krebs cycle, and it could be made via oxidative foster relation in the electron transport chain in Kenya's Moses. And so, once again, after we explore aerobic cellular respiration in the presence of oxygen, then we'll zoom out and start to explore the right branches. Cellular respiration in the absence of oxygen without oxygen being present. And we'll learn that, like Collis is's actually, um, a process that can occur without oxygen. And then we'll talk about anaerobic respiration or fermentation and how anaerobic respiration is going to have some alternative final electron except, er, other than oxygen. It's not going to be oxygen. And then we'll talk about two different types of fermentation. Lactic acid fermentation and alcohol fermentation. And so, once again, this image here represents the map of our lesson moving forward, and so you can refer back to this map here to make predictions about what topics we're going to be covering next and where we are within our lesson before we transition toe other parts of our lesson. And so this year concludes our introduction to our map of lesson of cellular respiration, and we'll be able to get started by talking Mawr and Maura about aerobic cellular respiration, specifically the processes that involves substrate level foster relation and oxidative foster relation. So we'll talk about that next, and I'll see you all in our next video.
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Introduction to Cellular Respiration Example 2

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All right. So here we have an example problem that says using the map above which of the following occurs in the absence of oxygen or where no oxygen is present. And we've got these four potential answer options down below. And so when we take a look at our map of the lesson on cellular respiration from up above notice that this entire left hand branch over here is occurring in the presence of oxygen with oxygen being present, that's this entire left branch and noticed that the entire right branches occurring without oxygen, being present in the absence of oxygen. And so that is this entire right branch. And so notice. Once again, the problem is asking us which of the following occurs in the absence of oxygen where no oxygen is present. So it's specifically wants us to choose an option on the right hand side of our map. And so when we look at some of these options, such as aerobic respiration, oxidative foster relation and oxygen serving as the final Elektronik sector, notice that they all show up on the left hand side. Aerobic respiration is here. Oxidative foster relation is here, and oxygen serving as the final electron. Except er is here. And so those three things are all occurring with oxygen being present and the Onley one that occurs without oxygen. Being present is fermentation and so fermentation We could see over here on the right hand side. And there are two types that we're gonna talk about moving forward, lactic acid fermentation and alcohol fermentation. But for now, for this example problem. What we can see is that fermentation is going to be the correct answer here, the one that occurs in the absence of oxygen. And so we could go ahead and indicate that a Here is the correct answer to this example problem and that concludes this example. So I'll see you all in our next video.
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Problem

Based on the map of cellular respiration, why do we need to breathe in oxygen?

a) Oxygen is the final electron acceptor for lactic acid fermentation.

b) Oxygen is the final electron acceptor for alcohol fermentation.

c) Oxygen is the final electron acceptor for aerobic cellular respiration.

d) Oxygen is not important for the purposes of cellular respiration.

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