Hi. In this video, we're going to take a quick tour of some of the major lineages of pro carry it's and we're going to begin with Pro Dio bacteria, a diverse, played of gram negative bacteria that's actually organized into five sub groups that are named with Greek letters Alfa Beta gamma, Delta and Epsilon. And you can see a file, a genetic tree of rodeo bacteria right here. You might notice that this also includes Zeta Proteome bacteria. This is a newer grouping, and your books likely won't include it now. Many species of protozoa bacteria are involved in nitrogen fixation, and many are also pathogenic species. And you can see a picture of some typical proteome bacteria here. And don't forget that it was proteome bacteria that was engulfed by a cell and eventually would become mitochondria. So uhh, you know this. They're very old type of organism, and of course, they lead Thio super important structure in you carry, it's now moving on. We have chlamydia, which is a group of gram negative bacteria that lack peptic like and in their cell walls, and you hopefully remember that gram negative bacteria usually have a thin layer of peptic glikin below the outer Lipa Polly Sacha ride layer. Well, these bacteria actually don't have that Pepto like in at all. They're also all parasites. All of the species in this group are parasites that live inside host cells. And you can see a picture of that happening right here. These translucent blobs are those post cells, and you can see these three have these brown spots inside them. Those brown spots are the clay media cells that have been stained with a particular stain, turning them brown so that we can visualize them. So those cells have been infected with chlamydia. The comedy is living inside of them. And again, if this name sounds familiar, it's because the famous STD Clay media is, uh, caused by a bacteria caused by bacteria in this group. Um, we often just referred to it as clay media, though the sort of group name now Spira, Keats, our gram negative hetero tropes. And what's distinct about them is their corkscrew shaped that you can see in these two pictures this sort of zoomed out one those little dark squiggles like here and here those our spire keep bacteria. They're attacking these cells that air stained yellow in this image and for, um, or zoomed in look. So, um, an image of a spire Keat, much more zoomed in. You can really see that corkscrew shape in the bacteria and aspire, Keats actually there to famous diseases caused by spire Keats that you've probably heard of it. Those are Lyme disease and the STD. Oops, Syphilis. So lovely thing. Spire keeps right. Lovely diseases. All right with that. Let's And I'm sorry. I'm just I'm just making a joke. Being sarcastic don't mean to make light diseases caused by these bacteria, but yeah, basically, the end point is nasty little guys thes spire. Keats. Right with that, let's turn the page. Talk about some other bacteria.
Prokaryote Lineages 2
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cyanobacteria are gram negative photo autotrophs and many species actually performed nitrogen fixation. Now they are sometimes termed blue green algae. But this is a bit of a misnomer, as they are in fact, pro carry outs. Not you carry outs at all. They're actually the Onley bacteria that perform oxygen, IQ, photosynthesis. And it's pretty incredible because they're responsible for the origin of oxygen in the atmosphere. And you can see a nice, up close image of some cyanobacteria here. These are cyanobacteria that grow in filaments. Some grow is like free floating little cells and others form colonies. And you can see that this is a satellite photo here and this green mass here, that is just a cyanobacteria. That is a huge bloom of cyanobacteria. Um, you know, obviously generating ah bunch of oxygen because it's performing. Ah, bunch of photosynthesis. I mean, pretty amazing. This is a satellite photo, and there is so much of these tiny micro organisms rather so many of these tiny micro organisms that we can see it from space. And actually, the oldest fossils we have of life on Earth come from cyanobacteria. Uh, these air stromatolites, these blobs of what looked like rockets, actually calcium carbonate. And this is exuded by certain types of Santa bacteria on the and basically the oldest fossils we have of life on Earth are stromatolites from cyanobacteria, these air modern, uh, you know, living cyanobacteria. But we have stromatolites that look like these from, you know, over a billion years ago. It's amazing now. And also don't forget, lastly, that cyanobacteria are the organisms that were engulfed and eventually became chloroplasts. Now Act 18 acting a bacteria our high GC gram positive bacteria. And what that means is they have a large, uh, a high percentage of guanine cytosine right GC from DNA in there chromosome. So they have a high GC content, so to speak, their grand positive bacteria. And they include the genus stripped in my sees, which is responsible for many antibiotics. Uh, many antibiotics have come from this genus of act in a bacteria. Now, these were initially mis classified as fungi because they have a fungus like morphology. And as you'll see in the name, it ends with my sees. Uh, what you'll see once we are when we discuss fungi is that, uh, the names of the Latin names for fun. Guy end in my sees. So these were initially thought to be fun guy, Actually, bacteria. Now the misclassification comes from the fact that chains of cells form these branching my Celia. And it's these structures that caused biologists to think that these were actually fun guy. Lastly, we have the firm equities which are low GC gram positive bacteria. So thes high GC is basically in comparison to these low G C bacteria, and this actually includes This group includes the genus lacto bacillus, which is super important to humans. Not on Lee. Are they responsible for yogurt production? Obviously very important, and also they're involved in cheese production. Very important, and most important to me, they're involved in sour beer production. If you've never heard of sour beer, you strike. It's delicious. Andi. It involves fermentation with lacto bacillus to help get that lactic acid kind of sour flavor. Additionally, there are many species of lactobacillus that live inside humans that are super important. Um, for our health, I mean many species live in our gut. Help us with digestion. There are species that live in the vagina that help maintain that environment, and that's actually what this image is from this is a human cell, and you can see this is a human cell and you can see all these little dark rods. Those are lacto bacillus and they our species of lactobacillus that live in the vagina. All right, that's it.