in this video, we're going to begin our lesson on post translational modifications. And so first we need to recall from our previous lesson videos. That translation is the cellular process of building proteins by using the encoded messages of messenger RNA or mRNA. Now, after translation has been complete and the poly peptide chain has been formed. Sometimes post translational modifications will take place and post translational modifications. Air sometimes abbreviated as P. T. M's now post translational modifications or PT m our co Vaillant alterations that control the proteins. Activity after translation has been completed. And so there are many different types of post translational modifications, and we're going to show you a bunch of post translational modifications down below in our image. But some of the more common types of post translational modifications that you should definitely familiarize yourself with are the four that we have listed down below right here, which are methylation, a C dilation, ubiquity, nation and phosphor relation. So let's take a look down below at our image to get a better understanding of post translational modifications on dso up here at the top. What we're showing you is our messenger, r n a And of course, we know that the messenger RNA is going to undergo translation to form our poly peptide chain, our protein whose structure we're showing you right here. Now, after translation has been completed, this protein, this poly peptide chain, can be modified co violently after translation. And that is why it's called post translational modification because post means after translation and so you can see a bunch of different post translational modifications that we have listed here. We're showing you nine different post translational modifications, but you don't need to memorize all these post translational modifications. It will depend upon your instructor, your professor which post translational modifications you should familiarize yourself with. But the ones that we recommend are here across the top. So here we're showing you hydroxy elation, which is the addition of ah hydroxyl group number two. What we're showing you is methylation and methylation is going to be the addition of a metal group, a ch three group to the protein modifying it co violently. Lipid ation is going to be the process of adding a lipid to protein. Ah, see, dilation here is going to be the process of adding Anna Segal Group, which you can see here, uh, to the protein. Then die sulfide bonds are another type of post translational modification that can link covertly to separate proteins or can also occur between the same protein die sulfide bonds. Ubiquity nation is going to be adding a ubiquitous in group to the protein, which is a small ubiquity in is a small protein itself that's going to be added to the protein, uh, sulfur nation is going to be adding a sulfur group which is represented here as the S to the protein glide. Consolation is going to be adding a carbohydrate to the protein and then phosphor relation with last one up here is going to be adding a phosphate group to the protein after translation. And so once again, there are a bunch of different post translational modifications. There are a lot more than the ones that we've listed here, and so the ones that you are going to need to know is going to depend on your specific professor. But the ones that we recommend that you should definitely be more familiar with our methylation, assimilation, ubiquity, nation and fossil relation. And so this here concludes our brief introduction to post translational modifications, and we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward in our course, so I'll see you all in our next video.