Fungi - 1

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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Hi. In this video, we're going to talk about fungi, which include molds, mushrooms, yeasts, mildew, all that lovely stuff. Now fungi are hetero trophic. You carry outs, and they generally have a hap Lloyd nucleus, and they tend to be the main D composers in many ecosystems. And this is a very important feature of fungi that we're going to return Thio again and again. And here you can see a couple examples. We have morel mushrooms, which are absolutely delicious type of mushroom. You hear these? A monogamous Kariya. These will kill you, don't eat those. And of course, this is the most important mushroom, the power mushroom. Now some fun guy, our mutual ists. And that basically means they exist in relationship with another organism that benefits both of them. And this is another one of those really important properties of fun guy, and you'll see why momentarily now fungi are essential to many land plants. You often think of these as being two completely separate organisms. But the point that I'm going to try to drive home to you is that most land plants would not be able to survive without fungi, and the reason is because of this mutual ist relationship. They share this symbiosis. They share now a couple examples of some fungi relationships, not the kinds that end in bad breakup. The good kinds are end of fights, which are basically symbiotic fungi that live inside plants. And they benefit the plants that in which they live, and the plants in which they live benefit them, and they lived happily ever after. That's not to say that things can. The things always work out well, as we'll see soon now, like in our in especially cool example of mutual ist fungal relationship. And it's a symbiotic association of fungus and algae, or sometimes a cyanobacteria, the main point being a uni cellular organism that performs photosynthesis. Now, in this example, here we see in blue the fungal body. We'll learn more about what fungal bodies are made of momentarily, but for now, just think of that is the body of the fungus, and it's wrapped around these algae, and essentially, these two organisms are going to help each other. I mean, algae perform photosynthesis right again. This could be cyanobacteria, But for the sake of my example, I'm just gonna talk about algae so algae perform photosynthesis, meaning they're going thio generate organic compounds that the fungus can feed off of in return. The fungus helps ah, secure water for the algae and also helps prevent it from drying out. It essentially acts as a protector, and it also can provide certain nutrients to the algae, so they live together in harmony. Very, very cool organism. You can see a picture of some liken right there. It's a little like, like and clump like and actually come in all different shapes and sizes. That many different morphology is really cool organism. Now, last thing I want to say is that some fun guy are actually or some phone guy have symbiosis. That air obligate that is to say, there, uh, they exhibit obligate symbiosis, meaning they have to live in a symbiosis in order to survive. Now, Other fungi in many fungi. In fact, uh, our faculty native. And if you recall these terms from when we talked about, um, cellular respiration, specifically aerobic respiration, uh, you might recall that obligate means you have thio and faculty Native means you can, but it's not necessary. So some funk I can, uh, have symbiosis but they don't necessarily need them in order to survive. They might just survive better with them, Now said. Not all these relationships and well, well, it turns out there are a bunch of fun guy that are parasites, and they'll infect plants and animals. And when they infect animals, we call this my casus. Now fungi tend to be the main D composers, as I said, and what's really important is they're able to digest plant material, specifically cellulose and lignin. You might remember previously when we talked about lignin, we said it was a tough material and thinking way far back to when we first talked about Celie List. We actually talked about the fact that cellulose cannot be digested. If you're curious as to this lesson, I'm referring Thio. The lesson on carbohydrates in the biological molecules chapter. Now cellulose can't be digested by animals, but fungi can digest cellulose, so they're actually a bunch of fungi that live in the guts of various animal species that help those animals digest plant material by breaking up of cellulose for them as well as the lignin, for that matter. And what's so important about this is because plants take so much carbon out of the atmosphere, right? They take all that co two that we animals put into the atmosphere. They take it out and they build it into their bodies. Right? And if nothing is done about this, then that carbon just sits there. And eventually those plants, the carbon and those plants will turn to what we know is coal today. Um, but fungi return this carbon to the carbon cycle. So they break down that non digestible plant matter or what's non digestible? Thio many other organisms. They break it down and they return that carbon to the carbon cycle. And actually, we have a special term for fun. Guy that feed on dead plant matter specifically right. If you're feeding on live plant matter Well, probably parasite, Right. So fun guy that feed on dead plant matter are called sacrifice. Now, here I just want to point out this parasitic fungal infection all these little tubular pink spaghetti strands, whatever you want to think of them as branches, they kind of look like those are part of the fungal body and this is animal tissue around it. So that is a fungal infection in an animal. And over here we can actually see the fungal bodies that are in the process of decomposing or fungal bodies that will be part of organisms that are going to decompose, plant matter and return carbon to the carbon cycle. Now, before we turn the page, the last fungus I wanna give a shout out to is yeast, my favorite fungus. The often overlooked fungus, however, it it's a wonderful organism. It's Ah Eunice cellular fungus. And as you'll see, most fungi outside of yeast are multi cellular, and it is the fungus that's responsible for leavened bread and beer. So we have been humans that is, have been using yeast for an enormously long time. I mean, it's hard to really say I you know, I'm not an expert on anthropology, but it's Humans have incorporated yeast into our cooking processes and are brewing. Process is for a very, very long time, and they're awesome organisms, and they actually have many similarities to human cells, which is why they're used for a number of, um, studies, including genetic studies to you learn more about humans. So go yeast, Easter. Awesome. And with that, let's turn the page